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韩愈《师说》翻译

发布日期:2016-02-19      阅读数:585 次

      

       古之学者必有师。师者,所以传道受业解惑也。人非生而知之者,孰能无惑?惑而不从师,其为惑也,终不解矣。生乎吾前,其闻道也固先乎吾,吾从而师之;生乎吾后,其闻道也亦先乎吾,吾从而师之。吾师道也,夫庸知其年之先后生于吾乎?是故无贵无贱,无长无少,道之所存,师之所存也。

       嗟乎!师道之不传也久矣!欲人之无惑也难矣!古之圣人,其出人也远矣,犹且从师而问焉;今之众人,其下圣人也亦远矣,而耻学于师。是故圣益圣,愚益愚。圣人之所以为圣,愚人之所以为愚,其皆出于此乎?爱其子,择师而教之;于其身也,则耻师焉,惑矣。彼童子之师,授之书而习其句读者也,非吾所谓传其道解其惑者也。句读之不知,惑之不解,或师焉,或不焉,小学而大遗,吾未见其明也。巫医乐师百工之人,不耻相师。士大夫之族,曰师曰弟子云者,则群聚而笑之。问之,则曰:“彼与彼年相若也,道相似也,位卑则足羞,官盛则近谀。”呜呼!师道之不复,可知矣。巫医乐师百工之人,君子不齿,今其智乃反不能及,其可怪也欤!

       圣人无常师。孔子师郯子、苌弘、师襄、老聃。郯子之徒,其贤不及孔子。孔子曰:三人行,则必有我师。是故弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子,闻道有先后,术业有专攻,如是而已。

       李氏子蟠年十七,好古文,六艺经传皆通习之,不拘于时,学于余。余嘉其能行古道,作《师说》以贻之。

       文言翻译:

       古时候求学问的人一定有老师。所谓老师,就是(用来)传授道理、授与专业知识、解答疑难问题的人。人不是生下来就懂道理的,谁能够没有疑难问题呢?有疑难问题却不跟老师请教,那些成为疑难的问题便终究不会解决了。出生在我前面的,他懂得道理本来比我早,我跟随他,以他为师;出生在我后面的,他懂得道理要是也比我早,我也跟他学习。我学习的是道理,哪管他出生在我之前还是在我之后呢?因此,不论地位高还是低,不论年龄大还是小,道理存在的地方,老师也就在那里。

       唉!从师学习的传统不被继承已经很久了,要人们没有疑难问题是很困难的了!古时候的圣人,超出一般人够远了,尚且跟从老师请教;现在的一般人,他们不如圣人也够远了,却以向老师学习为耻辱。因此,圣人就更加圣明,愚人就更加愚蠢。圣人的所以成为圣人,愚人的所以成为愚人,大概都是由于这个原因吧?人们爱自己的孩子,就选择老师来教他们;对于自己呢,却不肯从师学习,这真糊涂了。那些儿童们的老师,是教给儿童们读书和学习书中文句的,不是我所说的那种传授道理、解释疑难问题的老师。不懂得书中的文句就从师学习,疑难问题不得解释,却不向老师请教,小事学习,大事反而丢弃,我看不出他们明白道理的地方。巫医、乐师、各种工匠,不把相互学习当作难为情。读书做官的这类人,一听到有人以“老师”、“学生”相称,就许多人聚集在一起讥笑人家。问他们为什么这样,他们就说:“他和他年纪差不多,学问也差不多。称地位低的人为师,就感到羞耻,称官位高的人为老师,就近于拍马。”唉!从师学习的传统不能恢复,从这里可以知道了。巫医、音乐师和工匠,是所谓上层人士看不起的,现在那些“上层人士”的明智程度竟然反而不及这些人,岂不是可以奇怪的么!

       圣人没有固定的老师。孔子曾拜郯子、苌弘、师襄、老聃为师。郯子这些人,他们的品德才能并不如孔子。孔子说:“三个人一起走,那一定有可以当我老师的。”所以,学生不一定不及老师,老师不一定比学生高明。懂得道理有先有后,技能各有钻研与擅长,只是这样罢了。

       李蟠,十七岁,爱好古文,《诗》、《书》等六经经文及解释经文的著作都普遍地研习过,又不被耻学于师的习俗所约束,向我学习。我赞许他能实行古人从师学习的道理,特别写了这篇《师说》来赠给他。


       英语翻译:

On Teachers
                          Han Yu

Ancient scholars certainly had teachers. A teacher is one whopasses on the truth, imparts knowledge and solves puzzles. Man is not born withknowledge. Who can deny that he has puzzles? These would remain unsolved,should one refuse to be instructed by teachers.

The men born before me surely know the truth before me, so Irespect them as teachers, whereas those born after me may also know the truthbefore me, I likewise respect them as teachers. It is the truth that Iendeavour to learn. Must I know beforehand whether my teacher was born earlieror later than I? Therefore, no distinction should be made between the noble andthe humble or between the young and the old. Where lies the truth, there is ateacher.

Alas, it is a long time since the admirable tone ofrespecting teachers ceased to pass on! How hard it would be to expect a man tobe free of puzzle! Sages in olden times outstripped by far the ordinary people.Nevertheless, they had teachers and asked them questions. Nowadays themultitude, though much inferior to sages, are ashamed of being instructed byteachers. As a consequence, sages become more sage, and ignoramuses moreignorant. The wisdom of the former and the stupidity of the latter — are theynot all caused by this?

Loving parents may select teachers to instruct theirchildren. But when it comes to themselves, they feel it a disgrace to be taughtby them. How wrong they must be! The teachers of their children only show themhow to read a book sentence by sentence, not to be mentioned in the same breathas those whom I refer to as passing on the truth and solving puzzles. For lackof reading skills, one seeks the help of teachers, while for unsolved puzzles,one acts contrariwise. It is indeed learning the lesser but giving up thegreater. I do not see its wisdom.

Physicians, musicians and multifarious artisans are notashamed of learning from each other. But among the gentlefolk the talk aboutthe teachers and pupils would invite laughter from a gathered company. Whenasked about the reason, they would say, “The one is equal to the other inage and knowledge.” To be instructed by a man of low social standing isregarded as a disgrace, and by a man of high official rank as a flattery. Alas,it is only conceivable that the noble tone of respecting teachers is lost andhardly retrievable! Physicians, musicians and artisans are refused to betreated as equals by gentlefolks, yet these turn out to be less intelligentthan those. Is it not strange?

Sages have had no constant teachers. Confucius once learnedfrom Tan Zi as well as from Chang Hong, Shi Xiang and Laozi, though Tan Zi andhis like are not on a parity with him in wisdom. Confucius says: “Out ofmy two fellow-travellers one must be qualified to be my teacher.” Hencepupils are not necessarily inferior to teachers, and teachers need not alwaysbe superior to pupils. Some may know the truth earlier or later than others andeach has his own professional specialty — that is all!

Li Pan, aged seventeen, is fond of ancient classical writingsand have studied all the six arts and their commentaries. Not restrained by thecurrent practice, he has learned from me. As I commend him for his being ableto follow the old ways, I am writing this essay “On Teachers” forhim.

      心译翻译工作室



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