Keywords to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19
Unity Is Strength.
1. Xi Jinping Inspecting Frontline Epidemic Prevention and Control
On February 10, 2020, Xi Jinping inspected COVID-19 prevention and control work in Beijing. On March 2, he visited the scientists and researchers working against the coronavirus in the capital city.
Xi told the conference that the epidemic containment in Hubei and Wuhan is trending on a positive direction, with initial progress achieved in stabilizing the situation and turning the tide. However, the task remains arduous. At this critical moment, people must be sober-minded, remain alert, continue the efforts and continue to take epidemic prevention and control as the top priority and the most important task. All prevention and control measures should be implemented down to the last detail, to defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the epidemic.
随着疫情防控形势逐步转好，完成救助任务的各地驰援医疗队将分批离开武汉、平安归家。Xi Jinping made instructions on different occasions about the care for the medical workers fighting against the epidemic. He emphasized that medical workers are the backbone in beating the epidemic, and they shall be well protected and given full support. The front-line medics shall have access to sufficient protective equipment and daily necessities, and have off-days in rotation and psychological counseling. The pay package, additional subsidies and epidemic prevention allowances for the medical staff should be fully delivered, their worries be lifted, and incentive mechanism be further improved, so that they will stay strong and healthy to fight the epidemic.
若有战，召必至。武警部队平均每天动用1000多名兵力、100余台车辆，协助地方疫情防控部门担负医疗物资调运卸载、防疫洗消和警戒值守等任务。 “是军人，就要随时上战场！哪里有危难，哪里就有共和国军人在冲锋；At the meeting held on February 23 to promote nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, Xi Jinping pointed out that the PLA commanders and soldiers had acted upon orders and were brave to fight a tough battle, which demonstrated the political character of the people’s army and their loyalty to the Party and the people.
“Soldiers are always be ready to go to the battlefield!” From strengthening leadership to rushing to aid Wuhan, from treating the ill to providing comprehensive support, from organizing emergency-related scientific researches to expanding personnel and material delivery capacity, the PLA has once again demonstrated the sheer force of putting people first: Where there is emergency, there is the pioneering people’s army; where there is a need, there is the dedicating people’s army.
他指出，上面千条线、下面一根针，群众大事小事都在社区，大家就是临时的“小巷总理”。疫情期间，武汉的社区全部实行网格化管理，网格员、下沉干部、志愿者、楼栋长等组成了一个个小组为社区居民服务：报表组跟踪监控居民健康情况，每日电话问询；随着疫情联防联控工作的推进，全国有许多社区工作者、志愿者每天为居家隔离的居民送去生活必需品，随访健康状况，为居民提供引导就医、转诊、咨询等服务。During his inspection in Wuhan, Xi visited Donghu Xincheng Community and talked with the community workers. He called community workers “temporary prime minister of the alleys,” who have to handle all kinds of matters that relate to people’s livelihood.
A great number of community workers and volunteers across the country delivered necessities to self-isolated residents at home on a daily basis, followed up their health conditions, and helped residents see doctors, transfer to hospitals or get consultation. Their dedication shored up a strong defense line in the communities.
他们不怕疲劳、连续作战，用生命护卫人民、维护安全。“疫情当前，警察不退”。The public security organs at provincial, municipal and county levels each dispatched 15%, 20%, and 30% of their police forces to support the communities. In total, 342,000-plus police officers worked tirelessly at the front line, risking their lives to protect the people and maintain security. As of April 2, 60 police officers and 35 police support officers sacrificed their lives at the front line, and 20 of them were posthumously honored as second-class heroes.
基层干部没有警服、救援服、隔离衣，只有最普通的口罩。他们没有执法证、资格证，只有一张张群众熟悉的面孔，他们既担负着基层管理，又是当地群众的“跑腿员”“广播员”“安全员”。Grassroots officials have no protective suits to wear. They only have masks. They have no power of law enforcement. They are just familiar faces to the locals. They are responsible for managing the communities, and serve as the “errand runner,” “broadcaster” and “security officer” of the people.
社区防控点多面广，情况复杂多样，要做好地毯式追踪、网格化管理，又要照应居民合理必需的要求，保证社区有序运转，任务十分艰巨。下沉干部深入社区街道，积极配合社区干部做好人员排查、测量体温、消毒隔离、宣传引导、后勤保障等各项防控工作，为社区居民筑牢“防疫墙”。The prevention and control work in the communities are complicated. It is an arduous task to do blanket tracking on cases and exercise grid-based management, while attending to the reasonable and essential needs of residents and maintaining orderly operation of the communities.
According to incomplete statistics, more than 50,000 volunteers joined the efforts in battling the epidemic in Wuhan, a city with a population of 10 million. “We will not retreat if the epidemic has not receded.” This is the pledge of all volunteers across the country.
Many volunteers served as drivers for front-line doctors and nurses to and from work, or as 24-hour standby for sending residents with fever for medical treatment. Many helped the self-isolated residents buy vegetables and medicines. Some launched targeted fund-raising programs and coordinated the purchase of protective equipment and delivered them to the forefront; some mobilized college students to offer free online tutoring for the children of front-line medical workers. Some volunteers acted as announcers in Wuhan’s temporary hospitals in an effort to soothe the patients and medical workers. Many a little makes a mickle. The efforts of the vast number of volunteers offered a warm light at the time of the anti-epidemic war.
In the treatment of COVID-19, the severe and critical cases – the key to bringing down the fatality rate – were given top priority. To crack this toughest nut, Chinese medical workers have worked out different ways to treat the severe cases, with the goal of raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate. These included setting up a visiting team of academicians, forming an expert group, updating the treatment plan seven times, organizing an emergency intubation team for COVID-19 patients, and promoting clinical use of traditional Chinese medicines.
Id outings, and led a “stay-at-home lifestyle” by doing almost everything online, from sending New Year greetings, to working, teaching and buying things. They supported the community work in this way, in a joint effort to safeguard the hard-won achievements in epidemic prevention and control. While doing their own parts to combat the epidemic, the general public also assisted Wuhan and other parts of Hubei through a variety of forms, demonstrating the spirit of great love.
戴医用外科口罩时，鼻夹侧朝上，深色面朝外，上下拉开褶皱，使口罩覆盖口、鼻及下颌；佩戴口罩前按规程洗手，佩戴时避免接触口罩内侧。口罩摘下如不再使用，应放入固定丢弃处，避免交叉感染。Facemasks are important for preventing infectious respiratory diseases and lowering the risk of COVID-19 infections. Facemasks can prevent patients from spraying droplets, reduce the amount and speed of droplets, and protect the wearers from inhaling droplet nucleus of the virus.
acemasks have been effective in preventing and controlling COVID-19. On January 30, the NHC published a Guide on Facemask Usage Against Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia. On February 5, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published the Technical Guidelines for Selecting and Using Facemasks Against Novel Coronavirus Infection.
Facemasks should be worn and used properly to ensure effective protection. According to relevant guidance, in areas not affected by the disease, facemasks are unnecessary in open and well-ventilated places, but people should wear facemasks when entering crowded or enclosed public places. In high-risk areas, people should wear disposable medical masks in open and well-ventilated places, and wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95 when entering crowded or enclosed public places. Special groups who may contact suspected or confirmed cases should wear goggles and respirators of grade N95 or above.
Wash hands according to procedures before wearing a mask and avoid touching the inside of the mask.
Take off the mask with the side touching the nose and mouth folded inward, hang the mask in clean, dry, ventilated place or put it in a clean and ventilated paper bag for reuse.
Children should not wear the facemasks for adults, and parents should help their children wear facemasks properly.
根据国家卫生健康委发布的《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案（试行第七版）》，目前所见传染源主要是新型冠状病毒感染的患者。经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径。在备餐和聚餐过程中，人群相互之间都是密切接触者，咳嗽、打喷嚏甚至近距离交谈产生的飞沫，可直接传播给整个聚会人群，极易造成疾病传播，为疾病流行提供有利条件。加强个人防护，还要减少到公共场所活动，尤其是一些人员密集、空气流动性差的公共场所，如商场、餐厅、影院、车站、机场、码头、展览馆等。Everyone is the first person responsible for his/her health. During the outbreak of COVID-19, on top of the prevention and control measures taken by the government and relevant agencies, every citizen should be responsible for their own and others’ health, and fulfil the due diligence to maintain public security by protecting themselves and reducing non-essential outings and gatherings.
P should strengthen personal protection by reducing visits to public places, especially where is crowded or poorly ventilated, such as shopping malls, restaurants, cinemas, stations, airports, wharves and exhibition centers. These public places are crowded with people from everywhere and have high population mobility, and virus carriers are easy to cause people-to-people transmission, incur virus infections, and spread the disease.
3. Keeping Hands Clean
Besides wearing facemasks when going out, washing hands is also one of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent infectious disease. In daily work and life, people may touch items contaminated by viruses and bacteria, and pathogens on their hands can get into their bodies through the mucosae of mouth, eyes and nose. Washing hands can easily and effectively interrupt transmission through mucosae and reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections.
People should avoid touching mouth, nose and eyes when not sure whether their hands are clean, and sneeze or cough into the elbow.
he right way of hands washing is: Wash the hands with soap or liquid soap and running发生以下两种情况时应及时到当地指定医疗机构进行排查诊治：一是出现发热（腋下温度≥37.3℃）、咳嗽、气促等急性呼吸道感染症状；二是有武汉及周边地区，或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史，或发病前14天内曾接触过来自武汉及周边地区，或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史的发热伴呼吸道症状的患者，或出现聚集性发病。
Citizens should monitor their health and that of their family members, minimize close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as fever, cough or sneezing), and take temperature when feeling feverish. If there are children at home, parents can touch their foreheads in the morning and evening, and take their temperature in time if they have a fever.
On the way to see a doctor, people should wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95, avoid taking public transportation, and open the window of the vehicle they take. They should keep at least 1 meter from others on the way to and after arriving at the hospital. They should tell the doctor in detail about their conditions, their recent travel and residence history, and their contact with people and animals, and cooperate with the doctor in relevant investigations.
5. Maintaining Good Hygiene and Health Habits
During the outbreak of the COVID-19, while taking good protective measures, maintaining good hygiene and health habits can effectively reduce the risk of infection. On January 27, the NHC released a Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, which suggested the following ways to maintain good hygiene and health habits:
* Frequently open the windows of your house for better ventilation;
* Do not share towels with your family members;
* Keep your home and tableware clean;
* Sun-cure your clothes and quilts often;
* Do not spit;
* Wrap your oral and nasal secretion with tissue and throw it in a covered dustbin;
* Balance your nutrition and exercise moderately;
* Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals (gamey), and avoid visiting the market that sells live animals (poultry, seafood and wild animals);
* Have thermometer, surgical or N95 masks, and domestic disinfectants at home.
6. No Touching, Buying and Eating of Wild Animals.
Wild animals refer to all kinds of animals that live in a natural environment without artificial rearing. Many wild animals carry multiple viruses that can be transmitted to humans through contact. Viruses like AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, monkey pox, SARS, MERS, and novel coronavirus can spread to humans through wild animals.
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the prominent problem of eating wild animals and the huge potential dangers to public health have aroused wide concerns. On February 24, the 16th plenary meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress decided to thoroughly ban illegal wildlife trade and break the bad habit of eating wild animals, so as to effectively guarantee the safety of the people’s lives. This decision provided strong legislative guarantee to safeguard public health and ecological security and to protect people’s lives and health. For the sake of human health, people must not touch, hunt, sell, buy, process, or eat wild animals.
7. Family Prevention and Control
The family is the cell of society and an important place of defense against the epidemic. Among novel coronavirus cases, family infections are prominent. The gathering of people in the same space for a long time can easily cause virus spreading and result in “infection of a whole family by one confirmed member.”
8. Public Places Prevention and Control
Public places are where the general public take part in social activities, therefore they are a key link in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. These places are related to people’s health and economic and social development.
9. Public Transportation Prevention and Control
Public transportation features large flow of people, complex personnel source, and high possibility of close contact. It is difficult to prevent the spread of disease by only taking disinfection measures to cut off the transmission route. Measures such as strengthening personnel management, environmental sanitation and disinfection, and health education should be taken to ensure the safety and health of passengers.
The suggestions included:
* On-duty staff of public transportation in epidemic areas should wear surgical or N95 masks, and carry out daily health monitoring;
* Public transportation should have thermometers, masks and other items on them;
* Increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection of public transportation, and make records and identification;
* Maintain good ventilation;
* Keep the station and carriage clean and tidy, and clean up the garbage in time;
* Schedule proper personnel work and rotating shifts to ensure the crew get enough rest.
10. Office Prevention and Control
11. Nursing Homes Prevention and Control
The elderly are a vulnerable and high-risk group of the novel coronavirus with weak self-protection awareness. The institutions for elderly rehabilitation, nursing, and elderly care should take protective measures for the elderly.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), major measures to be taken by the elderly care institutions included daily preventive measures and counter measures in case of suspicious symptoms of elderly people.
The old-age care institutions should establish health records for the elderly and staff, and conduct daily morning check-up and health registration; conduct registration of visitors and demand all visitors wear surgical masks; encourage the elderly to wash hand frequently and keep their rooms clean and tidy.
12. Kindergartens and Schools Prevention and Control
Kindergartens and schools are places where young children and students live together, who are vulnerable to diseases and easily suffer cross-infection.
For the sake of epidemic prevention and control, the students should do the following:
* Stay at home for a 14-day observation before returning to school if they have a travel or residence history from areas hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan and other areas);
* Monitor their body temperature and health every day after returning to school, reduce unnecessary outdoor activities and avoid contact with others;
* Properly wear surgical or N95 masks when in close contact with their teachers and schoolmates, and minimize the scope of activities.
Schools should do the following:
* Monitor the health condition of students, take their body temperature twice a day, and make records of absence, early leave and leave;
* Report to epidemic management staff in case of suspicious symptoms among students, and cooperate with medical and health institutions in the management of close contacts and disinfection work;
* Avoid organizing large-scale collective activities;
* Ensure ventilation and cleaning in public activity areas such as classrooms, dormitories, libraries, activity centers, canteens, auditoriums, teacher offices and toilets, and equip these places with hand sanitizers and hand disinfectants;
* Provide online teaching and make-up classes that students have missed due to the epidemic and illness;
* Arrange make-up exams for students who miss exams due to illness, which will not be recorded in the archives.
13. Prevention and Control for the Elderly
On January 28, the NHC issued a notice on epidemic prevention and control among the elderly, requiring effective measures to reduce the infection rate, severe cases and deaths. The Office of the National Working Committee on Aging published a letter calling for the senior citizens to take scientific measures against the disease and not to panic; reduce outdoor activities and have personal protection; balance nutrition and ensure food hygiene; exercise moderately; and take protective tips.
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南（第一版）》，儿童群体的主要防控措施包括：要养成打喷嚏或咳嗽时用纸巾或袖肘遮住嘴巴、鼻子的习惯；家长要加强居室通风，做好室内消毒，创造清洁生活环境，外出回家后洗手更衣再接触儿童；According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for children included:
* Reduce outdoor activities as much as possible, avoid going to crowded or poorly ventilated spaces, and avoid visiting relatives and friends or contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory tract infection;
* Take good protection such as wearing a facial mask while going out;
* Cover mouth and nose with tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing;
* Go to hospital with parents in time in case of a fever or illness;
* Parents should improve room ventilation, and do indoor disinfection to create a clean living environment;
* After returning from public areas, parents should wash hands and change clothes before contacting children;
* Parents should teach children correct way of hand washing, urge children to wash their hands frequently, avoid touching public objects, balance nutrition and exercise moderately, work and rest regularly, and help children develop good health habits.
15. Prevention and Control for Students
The health of students involves thousands of families, which is the key and top priority of epidemic prevention and control. On January 29, the Ministry of Education proposed all regions postpone the new school term during the epidemic prevention and control period, and primary and middle schools “suspend classes with non-stopping teaching and learning” during the period.
Specifically, they should do the following:
* Register at local community or village administration as soon as possible, and avoid outdoor activities, especially visits to crowded public places;
* Monitor their health conditions twice a day for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of leaving the epidemic areas;
* Stay alone or in well-ventilated single rooms, if possible, and minimize close contacts with family members;
* Seek medical advice immediately if they have suspicious symptoms related to COVID-19 (such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest distress, breathing difficulties, mildly poor appetite, fatigue, feebleness, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild myalgia in limbs or the lumbodorsal area);
* On the way to hospital, wear a surgical or N95 mask, and avoid taking public transportation; have the car windows remain opened for good ventilation; keep the mask on and hands clear all the time; and stay at least one meter from other people;
* Disinfectants containing chlorine or peracetic acid are recommended to sterilize all surfaces of the vehicle if contaminated by their respiratory secretions or body fluids.
According to its suggestions, people under home quarantine and medical observation should do the following:
* Stay in a well-ventilated room, and keep windows open for ventilation but door closed;
* Open the window of their room for ventilation before opening the door that connects to where family members or roommates live;
* Avoid leaving the room, and wear a surgical mask, wash or sanitize hands before going out, if they must;
* Minimize contacts with family members or roommates, keep a distance of at least one meter from them, and try to be in the downwind direction;
* Not use the central air-conditioning;
* Get adequate rest and nutrition, and eat and drink in their own room;
* Timeshare bathrooms, and after usage, keep the bathroom ventilated, and use alcohol and other disinfectants to sterilize all the surfaces of objects that are subject to physical contacts;
* Practice the Cough Etiquette: covering mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing; no spitting; and putting the used tissues and masks into special waste receptacles with covers;
* Clean and disinfect immediately all objects they have used;
* Follow the notice for medical observation at home to measure body temperature every morning and afternoon or anytime when they have a fever;
* Contact staff at the quarantine center if they develop acute respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and panting.
If family members, roommates, staff of property management, cleaning and security, and other people need to come into contact with the people under medical observation at home, they are recommended to correctly wear and remove protective suits.
18. Prevention and Control for Fever Patients at Home
Winters and springs see high incidences of respiratory infections. Common cold, influenza and COVID-19 can all lead to fever, but they are different in other symptoms. The symptoms of a common cold are obvious in the upper respiratory tract, such as sneezing, runny nose, and sore throat, and also there may be some mild general symptoms with transient fever or no fever. People with influenza may have severe general symptoms, often including high fevers, and other signs such as feeling chills, headaches, body aches, runny or stuffy nose, dry cough, chest pain, nausea, and lack of appetite. The symptoms of COVID-19 mainly are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients also have runny or stuffy noses, diarrhea and other signs.
As advised in the Protocol, fever patients at home should get good rest, keep a light and well-balanced diet, and take warm water instead of cold drinks to ensure normal functions of the spleen and stomach. Blind or improper use of antibiotics should be avoided. Separate meals are encouraged at home. They should wear a mask correctly, and maintain at least 1.5-meter distance from other family members.
If the temperature of a fever patient at home rises above 38.5℃, such measures as warm and wet towels and ice sticks could be used for physical cooling, and oral administration of CPMs for releasing heat, easing pain, and detoxifying is recommended.
ss, shortness of breath, as well as increased heart rate, diarrhea or vomiting are developed, it is advised to visit a designated hospital or fever clinic.
该防控方案指出，医疗机构发现符合疑似病例、确诊病例定义的患者时，应按要求开展流行病学调查、进行临床标本采集与相关病原检测；According to the Protocol, the definition of suspected cases considers both clinical and epidemiological features. There are three clinical manifestations: fever; radiographic imaging consistent with pneumonia; and normal or decreased white blood cell count, or decreased lymphocyte count in the early stages of the disease. The epidemiological history includes: history of travel to or residence in Wuhan within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; contact with a patient from Wuhan with fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; clustered cases; or epidemiological relation with confirmed cases. A suspected case is defined by having all the three clinical manifestations plus any of the epidemiological history criteria.
20. Prevention and Control for Visiting Medical Institutions
In the Guide on Protecting People Against Different Risks of Novel Coronavirus Infection, released on January 30, the NHC provided the following advice to individuals who need to visit a medical institution:
* Wear a surgical mask and keep hands clean;
* Avoid taking subway, bus or other public transportation, and avoid going to crowded places;
* Inform medical staff of their histories of travel to or residence in the epidemic regions and contacts with others, and cooperate with the medical institution to carry out relevant investigations.
Medical institutions should strengthen patient management, allocate medical staff properly, and reduce the risks for hospital-acquired infection. When a suspected or confirmed case is identified, quarantine or containment should be taken in accordance with law, and medical observation and other necessary precautions should be provided to the patient escorts and other close contacts. The institutions lack of the capability for treating COVID-19 should transfer the patients to designated hospitals in a timely manner.