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《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》(第四批)

发布日期:2020-04-29      阅读数:103 次

《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》
Keywords to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19
 
七、战“疫”微镜头
PART SEVEN 
Unity Is Strength.
 
1.习近平赴一线考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作
 
2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作。3月2日,习近平在北京考察新冠肺炎防控科研攻关工作。3月10日,习近平专门赴抗击疫情的主战场湖北省武汉市考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,在火神山医院和东湖新城社区这两个抗疫阵地,看望慰问奋战在一线的广大医务工作者、解放军指战员、社区工作者、公安干警、基层干部、下沉干部、志愿者和患者群众、社区居民,勉励大家坚定信心,战胜疫情。考察期间,他在向居家隔离的社区居民挥手致意,鼓励“大家一起加油”,叮嘱“武汉人喜欢吃活鱼,多组织供应”,点赞医务人员是新时代“最可爱的人”,表达“党和人民感谢武汉人民”深切之情。
 
在会议讲话中,习近平作出重要判断:当前,疫情防控任务依然艰巨繁重。习近平指出,这次新冠肺炎疫情防控是对治理体系和治理能力的一次大考,既有经验,也有教训。要着力完善城市治理体系和城乡基层治理体系,树立“全周期管理”意识,努力探索超大城市现代化治理新路子。
 
1. Xi Jinping Inspecting Frontline Epidemic Prevention and Control
 
On February 10, 2020, Xi Jinping inspected COVID-19 prevention and control work in Beijing. On March 2, he visited the scientists and researchers working against the coronavirus in the capital city. 
 
Xi told the conference that the epidemic containment in Hubei and Wuhan is trending on a positive direction, with initial progress achieved in stabilizing the situation and turning the tide. However, the task remains arduous. At this critical moment, people must be sober-minded, remain alert, continue the efforts and continue to take epidemic prevention and control as the top priority and the most important task. All prevention and control measures should be implemented down to the last detail, to defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the epidemic.
 
习近平多次作出重要指示,对参与疫情防控工作的医务人员送去关爱和鼓励。要关心关爱一线医务人员,落实防护物资、生活物资保障和防护措施,统筹安排轮休,加强心理疏导,落实工资待遇、临时性工作补助、卫生防疫津贴待遇,完善激励机制,尽心尽力帮助他们解除后顾之忧,使他们始终保持昂扬斗志、旺盛精力,持续健康投入抗疫斗争。
 
随着疫情防控形势逐步转好,完成救助任务的各地驰援医疗队将分批离开武汉、平安归家。Xi Jinping made instructions on different occasions about the care for the medical workers fighting against the epidemic. He emphasized that medical workers are the backbone in beating the epidemic, and they shall be well protected and given full support. The front-line medics shall have access to sufficient protective equipment and daily necessities, and have off-days in rotation and psychological counseling. The pay package, additional subsidies and epidemic prevention allowances for the medical staff should be fully delivered, their worries be lifted, and incentive mechanism be further improved, so that they will stay strong and healthy to fight the epidemic.
 
若有战,召必至。武警部队平均每天动用1000多名兵力、100余台车辆,协助地方疫情防控部门担负医疗物资调运卸载、防疫洗消和警戒值守等任务。 “是军人,就要随时上战场!哪里有危难,哪里就有共和国军人在冲锋;At the meeting held on February 23 to promote nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, Xi Jinping pointed out that the PLA commanders and soldiers had acted upon orders and were brave to fight a tough battle, which demonstrated the political character of the people’s army and their loyalty to the Party and the people.
 
 “Soldiers are always be ready to go to the battlefield!” From strengthening leadership to rushing to aid Wuhan, from treating the ill to providing comprehensive support, from organizing emergency-related scientific researches to expanding personnel and material delivery capacity, the PLA has once again demonstrated the sheer force of putting people first: Where there is emergency, there is the pioneering people’s army; where there is a need, there is the dedicating people’s army.
 
4.社区工作者
 
抗击疫情有两个阵地,一个是医院救死扶伤阵地,一个是社区防控阵地。习近平在北京市调研指导新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线。把社区这道防线守住,就能有效切断疫情扩散蔓延的渠道。
 
他指出,上面千条线、下面一根针,群众大事小事都在社区,大家就是临时的“小巷总理”。疫情期间,武汉的社区全部实行网格化管理,网格员、下沉干部、志愿者、楼栋长等组成了一个个小组为社区居民服务:报表组跟踪监控居民健康情况,每日电话问询;随着疫情联防联控工作的推进,全国有许多社区工作者、志愿者每天为居家隔离的居民送去生活必需品,随访健康状况,为居民提供引导就医、转诊、咨询等服务。During his inspection in Wuhan, Xi visited Donghu Xincheng Community and talked with the community workers. He called community workers “temporary prime minister of the alleys,” who have to handle all kinds of matters that relate to people’s livelihood. 
 
A great number of community workers and volunteers across the country delivered necessities to self-isolated residents at home on a daily basis, followed up their health conditions, and helped residents see doctors, transfer to hospitals or get consultation. Their dedication shored up a strong defense line in the communities.
 
5.公安干警
 
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,全国公安机关坚决贯彻落实习近平总书记重要指示精神和党中央决策部署,全警动员、全力以赴投入战疫情、防风险、保安全、护稳定各项工作,广大公安民警、辅警不畏艰险、不怕牺牲,坚守岗位、英勇奋战,全力投入到疫情防控和维护稳定工作。
 
他们不怕疲劳、连续作战,用生命护卫人民、维护安全。“疫情当前,警察不退”。The public security organs at provincial, municipal and county levels each dispatched 15%, 20%, and 30% of their police forces to support the communities. In total, 342,000-plus police officers worked tirelessly at the front line, risking their lives to protect the people and maintain security. As of April 2, 60 police officers and 35 police support officers sacrificed their lives at the front line, and 20 of them were posthumously honored as second-class heroes.
 
基层干部没有警服、救援服、隔离衣,只有最普通的口罩。他们没有执法证、资格证,只有一张张群众熟悉的面孔,他们既担负着基层管理,又是当地群众的“跑腿员”“广播员”“安全员”。Grassroots officials have no protective suits to wear. They only have masks. They have no power of law enforcement. They are just familiar faces to the locals. They are responsible for managing the communities, and serve as the “errand runner,” “broadcaster” and “security officer” of the people. 
 
社区防控点多面广,情况复杂多样,要做好地毯式追踪、网格化管理,又要照应居民合理必需的要求,保证社区有序运转,任务十分艰巨。下沉干部深入社区街道,积极配合社区干部做好人员排查、测量体温、消毒隔离、宣传引导、后勤保障等各项防控工作,为社区居民筑牢“防疫墙”。The prevention and control work in the communities are complicated. It is an arduous task to do blanket tracking on cases and exercise grid-based management, while attending to the reasonable and essential needs of residents and maintaining orderly operation of the communities. 
 
这些志愿者中,有党员、退役军人、学生、快递员和普通百姓等,他们年龄不一,性别不同,来自各个岗位甚至不同国家,坚守在高风险、高强度的防控一线,真诚奉献、不辞辛劳:招募集结社区志愿者,24小时待命运送发热居民就诊,为隔离居民买菜送药,协助社区防控工作;发动高校学生,为一线医护人员子女学习提供免费在线辅导和帮助;广大志愿者用点点滴滴的努力疗愈着心爱的家园,成为战“疫”时刻一束温暖的光。

8. Volunteers 
 
According to incomplete statistics, more than 50,000 volunteers joined the efforts in battling the epidemic in Wuhan, a city with a population of 10 million. “We will not retreat if the epidemic has not receded.” This is the pledge of all volunteers across the country.
 
Many volunteers served as drivers for front-line doctors and nurses to and from work, or as 24-hour standby for sending residents with fever for medical treatment. Many helped the self-isolated residents buy vegetables and medicines. Some launched targeted fund-raising programs and coordinated the purchase of protective equipment and delivered them to the forefront; some mobilized college students to offer free online tutoring for the children of front-line medical workers. Some volunteers acted as announcers in Wuhan’s temporary hospitals in an effort to soothe the patients and medical workers. Many a little makes a mickle. The efforts of the vast number of volunteers offered a warm light at the time of the anti-epidemic war. 
 
9.患者群众
 
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,中国医护人员尽己所能、全力以赴救治病患。截至3月底,新冠肺炎患者中年龄最大的治愈患者103岁,最小的仅出生17天。2020年3月10日,习近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作时对正在接受治疗的患者送去慰问,鼓励患者群众树立必胜信心,保持乐观向上的精神状态,主动听从医嘱,积极配合治疗。
 
In the treatment of COVID-19, the severe and critical cases – the key to bringing down the fatality rate – were given top priority. To crack this toughest nut, Chinese medical workers have worked out different ways to treat the severe cases, with the goal of raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate. These included setting up a visiting team of academicians, forming an expert group, updating the treatment plan seven times, organizing an emergency intubation team for COVID-19 patients, and promoting clinical use of traditional Chinese medicines. 
 
在这场全民战“疫”中,广大群众自觉居家、减少外出,通过网络在线拜年、工作、教学、采购等方式开启“宅生活”,积极配合社区防控,共同努力守护来之不易的抗疫成效。广大群众在做好自身的防疫工作同时,也展现了大爱精神,纷纷通过各种形式与途径支持武汉以及湖北其他地区。
 
Id outings, and led a “stay-at-home lifestyle” by doing almost everything online, from sending New Year greetings, to working, teaching and buying things. They supported the community work in this way, in a joint effort to safeguard the hard-won achievements in epidemic prevention and control. While doing their own parts to combat the epidemic, the general public also assisted Wuhan and other parts of Hubei through a variety of forms, demonstrating the spirit of great love.
 
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,口罩在疫情防控中起着重要作用。2月5日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《预防新型冠状病毒感染口罩选择与使用技术指引》。口罩佩戴的基本原则是科学合理佩戴、规范使用、有效防护。在疫情高发地区空旷且通风场所建议佩戴一次性使用医用口罩;特殊人群如可能接触疑似或确诊病例的高危人群,建议佩戴医用防护口罩(N95及以上级别)并佩戴护目镜。
 
戴医用外科口罩时,鼻夹侧朝上,深色面朝外,上下拉开褶皱,使口罩覆盖口、鼻及下颌;佩戴口罩前按规程洗手,佩戴时避免接触口罩内侧。口罩摘下如不再使用,应放入固定丢弃处,避免交叉感染。Facemasks are important for preventing infectious respiratory diseases and lowering the risk of COVID-19 infections. Facemasks can prevent patients from spraying droplets, reduce the amount and speed of droplets, and protect the wearers from inhaling droplet nucleus of the virus.
 
acemasks have been effective in preventing and controlling COVID-19. On January 30, the NHC published a Guide on Facemask Usage Against Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia. On February 5, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published the Technical Guidelines for Selecting and Using Facemasks Against Novel Coronavirus Infection. 
 
Facemasks should be worn and used properly to ensure effective protection. According to relevant guidance, in areas not affected by the disease, facemasks are unnecessary in open and well-ventilated places, but people should wear facemasks when entering crowded or enclosed public places. In high-risk areas, people should wear disposable medical masks in open and well-ventilated places, and wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95 when entering crowded or enclosed public places. Special groups who may contact suspected or confirmed cases should wear goggles and respirators of grade N95 or above.
 
Wash hands according to procedures before wearing a mask and avoid touching the inside of the mask. 
 
Take off the mask with the side touching the nose and mouth folded inward, hang the mask in clean, dry, ventilated place or put it in a clean and ventilated paper bag for reuse. 
 
Children should not wear the facemasks for adults, and parents should help their children wear facemasks properly. 
 
根据国家卫生健康委发布的《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第七版)》,目前所见传染源主要是新型冠状病毒感染的患者。经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径。在备餐和聚餐过程中,人群相互之间都是密切接触者,咳嗽、打喷嚏甚至近距离交谈产生的飞沫,可直接传播给整个聚会人群,极易造成疾病传播,为疾病流行提供有利条件。加强个人防护,还要减少到公共场所活动,尤其是一些人员密集、空气流动性差的公共场所,如商场、餐厅、影院、车站、机场、码头、展览馆等。Everyone is the first person responsible for his/her health. During the outbreak of COVID-19, on top of the prevention and control measures taken by the government and relevant agencies, every citizen should be responsible for their own and others’ health, and fulfil the due diligence to maintain public security by protecting themselves and reducing non-essential outings and gatherings.
 
P should strengthen personal protection by reducing visits to public places, especially where is crowded or poorly ventilated, such as shopping malls, restaurants, cinemas, stations, airports, wharves and exhibition centers. These public places are crowded with people from everywhere and have high population mobility, and virus carriers are easy to cause people-to-people transmission, incur virus infections, and spread the disease.
 
3. 保持手卫生
 
除了外出佩戴口罩,洗手也是预防传染病最简单、最有效的措施之一。日常工作、生活中,人们的手不断接触到被病毒、细菌污染的物品,手上的病原体可以通过手和口、眼、鼻的粘膜接触进入人体。洗手可以简单有效地切断这一传播途径,有效降低感染新冠病毒的风险。
 
正确的洗手方法是:使用流动水和肥皂或洗手液洗手,每次洗手应揉搓20秒以上,确保手心、手指、手背、指缝、指甲缝、手腕等处均被清洗干净。不方便用流动水洗手时,可使用含酒精的免洗洗手液。

3. Keeping Hands Clean
 
Besides wearing facemasks when going out, washing hands is also one of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent infectious disease. In daily work and life, people may touch items contaminated by viruses and bacteria, and pathogens on their hands can get into their bodies through the mucosae of mouth, eyes and nose. Washing hands can easily and effectively interrupt transmission through mucosae and reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections.
 
People should avoid touching mouth, nose and eyes when not sure whether their hands are clean, and sneeze or cough into the elbow.
 
he right way of hands washing is: Wash the hands with soap or liquid soap and running发生以下两种情况时应及时到当地指定医疗机构进行排查诊治:一是出现发热(腋下温度≥37.3℃)、咳嗽、气促等急性呼吸道感染症状;二是有武汉及周边地区,或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史,或发病前14天内曾接触过来自武汉及周边地区,或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史的发热伴呼吸道症状的患者,或出现聚集性发病。
 
Citizens should monitor their health and that of their family members, minimize close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as fever, cough or sneezing), and take temperature when feeling feverish. If there are children at home, parents can touch their foreheads in the morning and evening, and take their temperature in time if they have a fever.
 
On the way to see a doctor, people should wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95, avoid taking public transportation, and open the window of the vehicle they take. They should keep at least 1 meter from others on the way to and after arriving at the hospital. They should tell the doctor in detail about their conditions, their recent travel and residence history, and their contact with people and animals, and cooperate with the doctor in relevant investigations.
 
5. 保持良好卫生和健康习惯
 
在新冠肺炎疫情期间,做好防护措施的同时,保持良好卫生和健康习惯可以有效降低感染风险。国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中介绍了保持良好卫生和健康习惯的主要做法:居室勤开窗,经常通风;家庭成员不共用毛巾,保持家居、餐具清洁,勤晒衣被;不随地吐痰,口鼻分泌物用纸巾包好,弃置于有盖垃圾箱内;注意营养,适度运动;不要接触、购买和食用野生动物(即野味),尽量避免前往售卖活体动物(禽类、海产品、野生动物等)的市场;家庭备置体温计、医用外科口罩或N95口罩、家用消毒用品等物资。
 
5. Maintaining Good Hygiene and Health Habits
 
During the outbreak of the COVID-19, while taking good protective measures, maintaining good hygiene and health habits can effectively reduce the risk of infection. On January 27, the NHC released a Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, which suggested the following ways to maintain good hygiene and health habits:
 
* Frequently open the windows of your house for better ventilation; 
* Do not share towels with your family members;
* Keep your home and tableware clean; 
* Sun-cure your clothes and quilts often; 
* Do not spit; 
* Wrap your oral and nasal secretion with tissue and throw it in a covered dustbin; 
* Balance your nutrition and exercise moderately; 
* Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals (gamey), and avoid visiting the market that sells live animals (poultry, seafood and wild animals); 
* Have thermometer, surgical or N95 masks, and domestic disinfectants at home.
 
6. 不接触、购买和食用野生动物
 
野生动物是指所有非经人工饲养而生活于自然环境下的各种动物。许多野生动物带有多种病毒,如果人与之接触,可能将病毒传播给人类。如艾滋病、莱姆病、埃博拉病毒、亨德拉病毒、猴痘、SARS、MERS以及新冠病毒等,都是通过野生动物传播到人类。
 
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,滥食野生动物的突出问题及其对公共卫生安全构成的巨大隐患,引起社会广泛关注。2020年2月24日,第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次全体会议通过全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命安全的决定,为维护公共卫生安全和生态安全,保障人民群众生命健康安全提供有力的立法保障。为了人类健康,个人不要接触、捕猎、贩卖、购买、加工、食用野生动物。
 
6. No Touching, Buying and Eating of Wild Animals.
 
Wild animals refer to all kinds of animals that live in a natural environment without artificial rearing. Many wild animals carry multiple viruses that can be transmitted to humans through contact. Viruses like AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, monkey pox, SARS, MERS, and novel coronavirus can spread to humans through wild animals.
 
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the prominent problem of eating wild animals and the huge potential dangers to public health have aroused wide concerns. On February 24, the 16th plenary meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress decided to thoroughly ban illegal wildlife trade and break the bad habit of eating wild animals, so as to effectively guarantee the safety of the people’s lives. This decision provided strong legislative guarantee to safeguard public health and ecological security and to protect people’s lives and health. For the sake of human health, people must not touch, hunt, sell, buy, process, or eat wild animals.
 
7. 家庭防控
 
家庭是社会的细胞,也是抗击疫情的基础力量和重要防线。目前诸多新冠肺炎病例中,家庭聚集性感染的特征较为突出,这是因为多人长时间聚集在同一空间,很容易造成病毒传播扩散,出现“一人感染,一家传染”的情况。
 
国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中介绍了“家庭新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎预防指南”,提供了适用于家庭场所的日常预防建议:二是减少到人员密集、尤其是空气流动性差的公共场所活动三是不要接触、购买和使用野生动物,避免前往售卖活体动物的市场,禽肉蛋要充分煮熟后食用;五是随时保持手卫生六是外出佩戴口罩七是保持良好卫生和健康习惯八是主动做好个人及家庭成员的健康监测九是准备常用物资,如体温计、一次性口罩、家用消毒用品等。如家庭中有人被诊断为新冠肺炎患者,其他家庭成员如果经判定为密切接触者,应接受14天医学观察;对有症状的家庭成员经常接触的地方和物品进行消毒等。
 
7. Family Prevention and Control
 
The family is the cell of society and an important place of defense against the epidemic. Among novel coronavirus cases, family infections are prominent. The gathering of people in the same space for a long time can easily cause virus spreading and result in “infection of a whole family by one confirmed member.”
 
公共场所卫生操作方面,重点做好物体表面清洁消毒,对高频接触的物体表面(如电梯间按钮、扶手、门把手等),可用含氯消毒剂、消毒湿巾进行喷洒或擦拭;加强通风换气,保持场所内空气流通,首选自然风;确保场所内洗手设施运行正常,配备足量洗手液、速干手消毒剂或感应式手消毒设施;设立应急区域,当出现疑似或确诊病例时,及时到该区域进行暂时隔离和规范处理;个人防护方面,工作人员要做好“三注意”,即注意个人卫生防护、注意手卫生、注意身体状况。办公楼等场所要加强对来访人员健康监测和登记等工作。
 
8. Public Places Prevention and Control
 
Public places are where the general public take part in social activities, therefore they are a key link in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. These places are related to people’s health and economic and social development.
 
国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中,对飞机、火车、地铁、公共汽车和轮船等公共交通工具的卫生防护提供措施建议。公共交通工具防控建议主要包括:公共交通工具建议备置体温计、口罩等物品;保持公共交通工具良好的通风状态;做好人员工作与轮休安排,确保司乘人员得到足够休息。
 
9. Public Transportation Prevention and Control
 
Public transportation features large flow of people, complex personnel source, and high possibility of close contact. It is difficult to prevent the spread of disease by only taking disinfection measures to cut off the transmission route. Measures such as strengthening personnel management, environmental sanitation and disinfection, and health education should be taken to ensure the safety and health of passengers.
 
The suggestions included: 
 
* On-duty staff of public transportation in epidemic areas should wear surgical or N95 masks, and carry out daily health monitoring; 
* Public transportation should have thermometers, masks and other items on them; 
* Increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection of public transportation, and make records and identification; 
* Maintain good ventilation; 
* Keep the station and carriage clean and tidy, and clean up the garbage in time; 
* Schedule proper personnel work and rotating shifts to ensure the crew get enough rest.
 
10. 办公场所防控
 
办公场所防控主要指在办公区域进行的疫情防控管理。随着复工复产、人员陆续返岗,办公区域人员密度大、停留时间长、人员构成复杂,增加了办公场所的防控工作难度。国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》中,提供了办公场所防控指南,即工作人员要自行健康监测,若出现新冠状病毒感染的可疑症状(包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛、胸闷、呼吸困难、乏力、恶心呕吐、腹泻、结膜炎、肌肉酸痛等),不要带病上班;若发现新型冠状病毒感染的可疑症状者,工作人员应要求其离开;公用物品及公共接触物品或部位要定期清洗和消毒;保持办公场所内空气流通;洗手间要配备足够的洗手液,确保供水设施运行正常;保持环境卫生清洁,及时清理垃圾等。
 
此外,各地还就疫情期间办公场所防控和工作人员防护提出措施建议。例如,建立主体责任制,明确办公场所内各单位各部门的具体职责;办公场所所在建筑的经营管理者要建立租用户名录清单,建立楼宇、院落出入口体温监测、人员登记等防控措施;建立有针对性的防控工作方案;强化员工健康监测制度;加强重点岗位重点部门的风险梳理和应对措施;优化工作流程,降低感染风险;建立弹性工作制;减少会议等不必要的人群聚集性活动;保持办公场所室内空气流通;加强日常清洁和预防性消毒措施等。
 
10. Office Prevention and Control
 
T根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,养老机构防控疫情的主要措施包括日常预防措施,以及有老人出现可疑症状时的应对措施。疾病流行期间,建议养老机构实施封闭式管理,原则上不接待外来人员走访慰问,老人不能离院外出,不再接受新入住老人,必须外出的老人回到养老机构后应密切观察。此外,养老机构还应建立老人和工作人员的健康档案,每日开展晨检和健康登记;建立探访人员登记制度,所有外来探访人员应佩戴医用外科口罩;倡导老人养成经常洗手的好习惯,确保环境清洁卫生。如有老人出现可疑症状时,及时为其安排单间进行自我隔离,由医护人员对其健康状况进行评估,视病情状况送至医疗机构就诊,并暂停探访活动。
 
11. Nursing Homes Prevention and Control
 
The elderly are a vulnerable and high-risk group of the novel coronavirus with weak self-protection awareness. The institutions for elderly rehabilitation, nursing, and elderly care should take protective measures for the elderly. 
 
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), major measures to be taken by the elderly care institutions included daily preventive measures and counter measures in case of suspicious symptoms of elderly people. 
 
The old-age care institutions should establish health records for the elderly and staff, and conduct daily morning check-up and health registration; conduct registration of visitors and demand all visitors wear surgical masks; encourage the elderly to wash hand frequently and keep their rooms clean and tidy. 
 
幼儿园、学校防控疫情的主要措施包括:返校前有过疫情高发地区(如武汉等地区)居住史或旅行史的学生,建议居家观察14天期满再返校;学生返校后应每日监测体温和健康状况,尽量减少不必要外出,避免接触其他人员;学生与其他师生发生近距离接触的环境中,要正确佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩,尽量缩小活动范围;学校密切监测学生的健康状态,每日两次测量体温,做好缺勤、早退、请假记录,如发现学生中出现可疑症状,应立刻向疫情管理人员报告,配合医疗卫生机构做好密切接触者管理和消毒等工作;学校应尽量避免组织大型集体活动,教室、宿舍、图书馆、活动中心、食堂、礼堂、教师办公室、洗手间等公共活动区域加强通风清洁,配备洗手液、手消毒剂等;校方对因疫情、因病误课的学生开展网络教学、补课,对于因病耽误考试的学生,应安排补考,不应记入档案。
 
12. Kindergartens and Schools Prevention and Control
 
Kindergartens and schools are places where young children and students live together, who are vulnerable to diseases and easily suffer cross-infection. 
 
 For the sake of epidemic prevention and control, the students should do the following: 
 
* Stay at home for a 14-day observation before returning to school if they have a travel or residence history from areas hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan and other areas); 
* Monitor their body temperature and health every day after returning to school, reduce unnecessary outdoor activities and avoid contact with others; 
* Properly wear surgical or N95 masks when in close contact with their teachers and schoolmates, and minimize the scope of activities. 
 
Schools should do the following:
 
* Monitor the health condition of students, take their body temperature twice a day, and make records of absence, early leave and leave; 
* Report to epidemic management staff in case of suspicious symptoms among students, and cooperate with medical and health institutions in the management of close contacts and disinfection work; 
* Avoid organizing large-scale collective activities; 
* Ensure ventilation and cleaning in public activity areas such as classrooms, dormitories, libraries, activity centers, canteens, auditoriums, teacher offices and toilets, and equip these places with hand sanitizers and hand disinfectants; 
* Provide online teaching and make-up classes that students have missed due to the epidemic and illness; 
* Arrange make-up exams for students who miss exams due to illness, which will not be recorded in the archives.
 
13. 老年人防控
 
老年人免疫功能弱,是传染病的易感人群和高危易发人群,本次新冠肺炎疫情的危重症人群中老年人居多。2020年1月28日,国家卫生健康委印发《关于做好老年人新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的通知》,要求将老年人的疫情防控作为当前的重要工作来抓,采取有效措施,切实降低老年人感染率,尽最大努力减少重症和死亡病例。全国老龄工作委员会办公室发布的《给老年朋友的一封信》倡议,老年人要科学防控,不要过度恐慌;尽量减少外出,做好个人防护;注重补充营养和食品卫生;合理适度锻炼身体;主动学习相关防护知识等。
 
确保老人掌握预防新冠肺炎的个人防护措施、手卫生要求、卫生和健康习惯,避免共用个人物品,注意通风,落实消毒措施;老人出现可疑症状时,应自我隔离,避免与其他人员近距离接触,由医护人员对其健康状况进行评估,视病情状况送至医疗机构就诊,注意及时佩戴医用外科口罩,并避免乘坐公共交通工具;减少不必要的聚会、聚餐等群体性活动,不安排集中用餐等。病人离开后(如住院、死亡等),应及时对住所进行终末消毒。
 
13. Prevention and Control for the Elderly
 
 
On January 28, the NHC issued a notice on epidemic prevention and control among the elderly, requiring effective measures to reduce the infection rate, severe cases and deaths. The Office of the National Working Committee on Aging published a letter calling for the senior citizens to take scientific measures against the disease and not to panic; reduce outdoor activities and have personal protection; balance nutrition and ensure food hygiene; exercise moderately; and take protective tips.
 
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,儿童群体的主要防控措施包括:要养成打喷嚏或咳嗽时用纸巾或袖肘遮住嘴巴、鼻子的习惯;家长要加强居室通风,做好室内消毒,创造清洁生活环境,外出回家后洗手更衣再接触儿童;According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for children included: 
 
* Reduce outdoor activities as much as possible, avoid going to crowded or poorly ventilated spaces, and avoid visiting relatives and friends or contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory tract infection; 
* Take good protection such as wearing a facial mask while going out; 
* Cover mouth and nose with tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing; 
* Go to hospital with parents in time in case of a fever or illness; 
* Parents should improve room ventilation, and do indoor disinfection to create a clean living environment; 
* After returning from public areas, parents should wash hands and change clothes before contacting children; 
* Parents should teach children correct way of hand washing, urge children to wash their hands frequently, avoid touching public objects, balance nutrition and exercise moderately, work and rest regularly, and help children develop good health habits.
 
15. 学生防控
 
学生的身体健康牵涉到千家万户,是疫情防控的关键和重中之重。2020年1月29日,国家教育部宣布各地在疫情防控期间做好延期开学的准备,中小学应在延迟开学期间“停课不停教、不停学”。
 
寒假期间,有疫情高发地区(如武汉等地区)居住史或旅行史的学生,自离开疫情高发地区后,居家或在指定场所医学观察14天;每日进行健康监测,并根据社区或学校要求向社区或学校指定负责人报告。如有可疑症状,应报告学校或由监护人报告学校,及时就医,待痊愈后再返校;若旅途中出现可疑症状,应主动戴上医用外科口罩或N95口罩,尽量避免接触其他人员,并视病情及时就医;

15. Prevention and Control for Students
 
The health of students involves thousands of families, which is the key and top priority of epidemic prevention and control. On January 29, the Ministry of Education proposed all regions postpone the new school term during the epidemic prevention and control period, and primary and middle schools “suspend classes with non-stopping teaching and learning” during the period. 
 
Specifically, they should do the following:
 
* Register at local community or village administration as soon as possible, and avoid outdoor activities, especially visits to crowded public places;
* Monitor their health conditions twice a day for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of leaving the epidemic areas;
* Stay alone or in well-ventilated single rooms, if possible, and minimize close contacts with family members;
* Seek medical advice immediately if they have suspicious symptoms related to COVID-19 (such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest distress, breathing difficulties, mildly poor appetite, fatigue, feebleness, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild myalgia in limbs or the lumbodorsal area); 
* On the way to hospital, wear a surgical or N95 mask, and avoid taking public transportation; have the car windows remain opened for good ventilation; keep the mask on and hands clear all the time; and stay at least one meter from other people;
* Disinfectants containing chlorine or peracetic acid are recommended to sterilize all surfaces of the vehicle if contaminated by their respiratory secretions or body fluids.
 
17. 居家隔离人员防控
 
隔离是科学防控的必要手段,也是阻止病毒传播蔓延的重要方法之一。根据该防控指引,居家隔离医学观察人员感染防控应注意:不随意离开隔离房间,必须离开隔离房间时,先戴好外科口罩,洗手或手消毒后再出门;避免使用中央空调;讲究咳嗽礼仪,咳嗽时用纸巾遮盖口鼻,不随地吐痰,纸巾及口罩用后丢入专门的带盖垃圾桶内;按居家隔离医学观察通知,每日上下午测量体温,自觉发热时随时测量并记录,出现发热、咳嗽、气促等急性呼吸道症状时,及时联系隔离点观察人员。
 
According to its suggestions, people under home quarantine and medical observation should do the following:
 
* Stay in a well-ventilated room, and keep windows open for ventilation but door closed; 
* Open the window of their room for ventilation before opening the door that connects to where family members or roommates live;
* Avoid leaving the room, and wear a surgical mask, wash or sanitize hands before going out, if they must; 
* Minimize contacts with family members or roommates, keep a distance of at least one meter from them, and try to be in the downwind direction; 
* Not use the central air-conditioning; 
* Get adequate rest and nutrition, and eat and drink in their own room; 
* Timeshare bathrooms, and after usage, keep the bathroom ventilated, and use alcohol and other disinfectants to sterilize all the surfaces of objects that are subject to physical contacts; 
* Practice the Cough Etiquette: covering mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing; no spitting; and putting the used tissues and masks into special waste receptacles with covers;
* Clean and disinfect immediately all objects they have used; 
* Follow the notice for medical observation at home to measure body temperature every morning and afternoon or anytime when they have a fever; 
* Contact staff at the quarantine center if they develop acute respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and panting.
 
If family members, roommates, staff of property management, cleaning and security, and other people need to come into contact with the people under medical observation at home, they are recommended to correctly wear and remove protective suits.
 
18. 居家发热患者防控
 
冬春季节,呼吸道传染病高发,普通感冒、流感和新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎均可导致发热,但症状各有不同。如普通感冒通常表现为打喷嚏、流鼻涕、咽喉不适等明显的上呼吸道症状,而全身症状较轻,不发热或仅有短暂发热。流感多为高热,全身症状较重,伴有畏寒、头痛、全身酸痛、鼻塞、流涕、干咳、胸痛、恶心、食欲不振等表现。新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎以发热、乏力、干咳为主要表现,少数患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹泻等症状。
 
《指南》建议,居家发热患者应注意休息,营养均衡,饮食宜清淡;避免盲目或不恰当使用抗菌药物;怕冷、发热、肌肉酸痛、咳嗽者,可选用具有解热散寒、清热解毒、宣肺止咳类中成药;发热伴有咽痛明显者,可选用具有清热解毒利咽功能类中成药;此外,如果居家发热患者体温升高至38.5℃以上,可采取温湿毛巾或冰贴等物理降温措施,建议口服解热镇痛类、清热解毒类中成药。如果呼吸频率出现呼吸频率≥30次/分,伴呼吸困难及口唇发绀等表现,应拨打120急救电话,由急救医护人员转运到定点医院、发热门诊救治。
 
18. Prevention and Control for Fever Patients at Home
 
Winters and springs see high incidences of respiratory infections. Common cold, influenza and COVID-19 can all lead to fever, but they are different in other symptoms. The symptoms of a common cold are obvious in the upper respiratory tract, such as sneezing, runny nose, and sore throat, and also there may be some mild general symptoms with transient fever or no fever. People with influenza may have severe general symptoms, often including high fevers, and other signs such as feeling chills, headaches, body aches, runny or stuffy nose, dry cough, chest pain, nausea, and lack of appetite. The symptoms of COVID-19 mainly are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients also have runny or stuffy noses, diarrhea and other signs.
 
As advised in the Protocol, fever patients at home should get good rest, keep a light and well-balanced diet, and take warm water instead of cold drinks to ensure normal functions of the spleen and stomach. Blind or improper use of antibiotics should be avoided. Separate meals are encouraged at home. They should wear a mask correctly, and maintain at least 1.5-meter distance from other family members. 
 
If the temperature of a fever patient at home rises above 38.5℃, such measures as warm and wet towels and ice sticks could be used for physical cooling, and oral administration of CPMs for releasing heat, easing pain, and detoxifying is recommended. 
 
ss, shortness of breath, as well as increased heart rate, diarrhea or vomiting are developed, it is advised to visit a designated hospital or fever clinic. 
 
该防控方案指出,医疗机构发现符合疑似病例、确诊病例定义的患者时,应按要求开展流行病学调查、进行临床标本采集与相关病原检测;According to the Protocol, the definition of suspected cases considers both clinical and epidemiological features. There are three clinical manifestations: fever; radiographic imaging consistent with pneumonia; and normal or decreased white blood cell count, or decreased lymphocyte count in the early stages of the disease. The epidemiological history includes: history of travel to or residence in Wuhan within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; contact with a patient from Wuhan with fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; clustered cases; or epidemiological relation with confirmed cases. A suspected case is defined by having all the three clinical manifestations plus any of the epidemiological history criteria.
 
同时,医疗机构应做好就诊患者的管理,合理配置医务人员,降低医疗机构内感染的风险;不具备新冠肺炎救治能力的医疗机构,应及时将患者转诊到定点救治医院。
 
20. Prevention and Control for Visiting Medical Institutions
 
In the Guide on Protecting People Against Different Risks of Novel Coronavirus Infection, released on January 30, the NHC provided the following advice to individuals who need to visit a medical institution: 
 
* Wear a surgical mask and keep hands clean; 
* Avoid taking subway, bus or other public transportation, and avoid going to crowded places; 
* Inform medical staff of their histories of travel to or residence in the epidemic regions and contacts with others, and cooperate with the medical institution to carry out relevant investigations.
 
Medical institutions should strengthen patient management, allocate medical staff properly, and reduce the risks for hospital-acquired infection. When a suspected or confirmed case is identified, quarantine or containment should be taken in accordance with law, and medical observation and other necessary precautions should be provided to the patient escorts and other close contacts. The institutions lack of the capability for treating COVID-19 should transfer the patients to designated hospitals in a timely manner.
 

来源:中国翻译协会 日期:2020年4月26日

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