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国新办举行《2021中国的航天》白皮书新闻发布会

发布日期:2022-02-21      阅读数:106 次

国务院新闻办新闻局副局长、新闻发言人邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

女士们、先生们,各位媒体朋友们,大家上午好!欢迎出席国务院新闻办新闻发布会。

Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, good morning! Welcome to this press conference held by the State Council Information Office (SCIO).

今天,国务院新闻办发布《2021中国的航天》白皮书,同时举行新闻发布会,向大家介绍和解读白皮书的主要内容。

Today, the SCIO is holding a press conference to issue, introduce and interpret the main contents of a new white paper titled “China’s Space Program: A 2021 Perspective.”

白皮书深入贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,介绍2016年以来中国航天实现创新跨越发展、推进航天治理现代化、积极开展国际空间交流与合作的实践成就,阐述中国深入开展航天国际交流合作、推动构建外空领域人类命运共同体的政策理念和倡议主张,展望未来5年中国航天开启全面建设航天强国新征程、构建航天国际合作新格局愿景。

Thoroughly guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, the white paper introduces China’s practices and achievements in realizing innovative and leapfrog space development, modernizing space governance, and actively carrying out international space exchanges and cooperation. Furthermore, the paper explains China’s policies and proposals in conducting international space communication and collaboration and facilitating building a global community of shared future in outer space. Finally, the paper also looks to the vision where China will embark on a new journey towards a space power and foster a new paradigm of international space cooperation over the next five years.

白皮书分为三个部分,全文约1.3万字。其中正文包括六个部分,分别是:开启全面建设航天强国新征程,发展空间技术与系统,培育壮大空间应用产业,开展空间科学探索与研究,推进航天治理现代化,构建航天国际合作新格局。白皮书以中、英、法、俄、德、西、阿、日等8个语种发表,由人民出版社、外文出版社分别出版,在全国新华书店发行。

At about 13,000 Chinese characters, the white paper consists of three parts: the preamble, main body, and conclusion. The main body has six parts: A New Journey Towards a Strong Space Presence, Development of Space Technology and Systems, Developing and Expanding Space Application Industry, Research on Space Science, Modernizing Space Governance, and International Cooperation. The white paper is published in eight languages —Chinese, English, French, Russian, German, Spanish, Arabic, and Japanese — by the People’s Publishing House and the Foreign Languages Press. It is available at Xinhua Bookstore outlets across the country.  

为了帮助大家更准确、更深入地了解白皮书的内容,今天的发布会我们邀请到国家航天局副局长吴艳华先生,新闻发言人许洪亮先生,探月与航天工程中心主任刘继忠先生,对地观测与数据中心主任赵坚先生出席发布会,向大家介绍白皮书的有关内容,并回答大家的提问。

In order to help you gain a more accurate and deep understanding of the white paper, we have invited Mr. Wu Yanhua, vice administrator of the China National Space Administration (CNSA); Mr. Xu Hongliang, spokesperson of the CNSA; Mr. Liu Jizhong, director of the Lunar Exploration and Space Program Center of the CNSA; and Mr. Zhao Jian, director of the Earth Observation System and Data Center of the CNSA, to attend today’s press conference. They will introduce relevant information and answer your questions.

下面,我们先请吴艳华先生作情况介绍。

Now, I will give the floor to Mr. Wu Yanhua.

国家航天局副局长吴艳华:

Wu Yanhua:

女士们、先生们,上午好!很高兴与大家见面,感谢大家对中国航天事业的关心支持!今天,我们在这里发布第五部航天白皮书——《2021中国的航天》,目的是增进大家对中国航天发展的了解,共话美好合作前景。过去五年,嫦娥揽月、北斗指路、祝融探火、羲和逐日、天和遨游星辰、“悟空”“慧眼”探索宇宙奥秘,中国航天砥砺奋进,创造出新的成就,实现了新的跨越。

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. I am glad to meet you and grateful for your care and support for China’s space industry. Today, we are here to release China’s fifth white paper on space activities — “China’s Space Program: A 2021 Perspective” — to enhance your understanding of China’s space development and envision the bright prospects for cooperation. China’s space industry has forged ahead, secured new achievements, and made great strides in the past five years: the Chang’e lunar probes exploring the moon; the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) starting operation; the Zhurong rover probing Mars; the Xihe satellite exploring the sun; the Tianhe space station core module traveling among the stars; and the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (also known as Wukong or Monkey King) and the Huiyan (Insight) Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope unraveling the mysteries of the universe.

这五年,是中国航天创新发展的五年。运载火箭加快更新换代,以长征五号为代表的新一代无毒无污染运载火箭陆续投入使用,商业运载火箭不断涌现,形成陆地、海上多样化的发射能力,过去五年,共实施207次发射,长征运载火箭发射成功率96.7%。航天重大工程亮点纷呈。中国空间站建造全面实施,6名航天员先后进驻,开启了有人长期驻留时代。探月工程“绕、落、回”圆满收官,嫦娥四号首次着陆月背巡视探测,嫦娥五号带回1731克月壤。天问一号实现中国航天从地月系到行星际探测的跨越,在火星上首次留下中国印迹。空间基础设施不断完善,北斗全球卫星导航系统建成开通,高分辨率对地观测系统形成体系能力。

The last five years have seen innovation and development for China’s space industry. With the accelerated improvement of launch vehicles, the new generation of non-toxic and pollution-free launch vehicles, such as Long March-5, are now in service. The commercial carrier rockets have continued to emerge, forming a diversified launching capability covering land and sea. Over the past five years, a total of 207 launch missions have been completed, with the success rate of the Long March series carrier rockets being 96.7%. Major space programs have born rich fruit. The construction of China’s space station is fully underway. Six astronauts have been stationed in two missions, starting an era of long-term presence of people in the space station. The Chang’e-4 lunar probe has performed humanity’s first-ever soft landing on the moon’s far side and conducting roving explorations; the Chang’e-5 lunar probe has retrieved 1,731 g of samples. The Tianwen-1 mission has left China’s first mark on Mars for the first time, helping the country achieve a leap from cislunar to interplanetary exploration. The infrastructure of China’s space station has been consistently improved. The BDS has been completed and put into operation. Meanwhile, the high-resolution earth observation system has built systematic capabilities.

这五年,是中国航天赋能社会的五年。目前,在轨工作的各类卫星超过500颗,广泛服务于经济社会发展,为平安中国、美丽中国、数字中国建设等发挥重要作用。通信卫星为农村及边远地区1.4亿多户家庭提供远程教育、远程医疗、农村电商等服务,助力脱贫攻坚和乡村振兴。遥感卫星影像累计分发超亿景,有力保障气象预报、国土规划、生态保护、海洋经济、灾害应急等需求。北斗系统广泛应用于大众出行、智慧物流、精准农业,特别是为新冠肺炎疫情防控提供精准定位导航服务。航天技术推动了新能源、新材料等一大批新兴产业发展,促进了智慧城市、无人驾驶等新业态的兴起。商业航天企业蓬勃发展。

The last five years have seen China’s space industry contributing to society. More than 500 satellites of various types are operating in orbit, extensively serving socio-economic development and playing an essential role in building a peaceful, beautiful, and digital China. Communications satellites have provided more than 140 million families in rural and remote areas with remote education, telemedicine, and rural e-commerce services. Therefore, they have contributed to poverty alleviation and rural vitalization. In addition, more than 100 million remote sensing satellite images have been distributed, effectively fulfilling the demands of weather forecasting, territorial planning, ecological protection, the marine economy, and disaster emergency management. The BeiDou system has been widely used for traveling, intelligent logistics, and precision agriculture, especially providing precise positioning and navigation services in COVID-19 prevention and control. The space technology achievements have promoted the development of emerging industries, such as new energy and materials, and facilitated the emergence of new business forms such as smart cities and unmanned driving. The development of commercial space enterprises is thriving.

这五年,是中国航天探索突破的五年。围绕宇宙起源和演化、太阳系与人类的关系等科学主题,依托空间科学卫星和月球探测、火星探测、载人航天等工程,开展空间科学探索与实验研究,取得一批贡献人类的原创成果。“慧眼”成功观测到黑洞爆发,“悟空”获取宇宙射线能谱精细结构,“张衡一号”完成全球地磁场参考模型构建,碳卫星获取全球高精度二氧化碳分布图。探月工程任务揭示了月球背面地下结构,证实了月球20亿年前仍存在岩浆活动。“天琴一号”“太极一号”和“羲和号”卫星为空间引力波和太阳物理研究提供了新的手段。

Over the past five years, China’s space industry has made continuous exploration and breakthroughs. It has focused on scientific topics such as the origin and evolution of the universe and the relations between the solar system and humanity. It has been supported by space science satellites and lunar exploration, Mars exploration, and manned space missions. As a result, China’s space industry has carried out exploration and experimental research on space science and has made a number of innovative achievements that all humanity can share.

For example, the Huiyan Telescope successfully observed the black hole explosion process. The Wukong Explorer acquired the refined structure of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays. The satellite Zhangheng-1 built models of the global geomagnetic field, and the TANSAT satellite developed a high-precision map of the worldwide distribution of carbon dioxide. The lunar exploration missions revealed the subsurface structure of the moon’s far side, confirming that there were still magmatic activities on the moon 2 billion years ago. Finally, Tianqin-1, Taiji-1, and Xihe satellites have provided new research methods regarding space gravitational waves and solar physics.

这五年,是中国航天合作共享的五年。中国航天与国际同行一道,落实联合国2030可持续发展议程,共同推动航天技术助力可持续发展,新签署约50项合作协定或谅解备忘录。中国与俄罗斯联合发起国际月球科研站计划,在载人航天、探月工程、火星探测等任务中广泛开展国际合作,签署金砖国家遥感卫星星座协定,成功发射中法海洋卫星、中意电磁卫星,推动北斗标准进入民航、海事等多个国际组织标准体系。高分一号、六号卫星数据通过云平台向全世界免费分发,访问国家和地区158个,访问用户约55万个。中国5颗卫星和3个星座新加入国际减灾宪章机制,气象卫星数据应用于121个国家和地区。通过设施建设、人才培养、数据应用等多种方式,支持广大发展中国家的航天能力建设,共享中国航天发展成果。

The last five years have seen enhanced cooperation and sharing in China’s space industry. The Chinese space community has cooperated with international partners to help realize the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development goals by applying sustainable aerospace technologies. It also signed about 50 agreements or memorandums of understanding during the last five years. For example, China initiated the International Lunar Research Station project jointly with Russia and conducted extensive cooperation in manned space exploration, lunar exploration, and Mars exploration missions. In addition, it has agreed to cooperate on the BRICS Remote-Sensing Satellite Constellation and successfully launched the China-France Oceanography Satellite and the China-Italy Electromagnetic Monitoring Experiment Satellite. Furthermore, it has promoted the BeiDou standards to be included in the standard systems of several international organizations in the fields such as civil aviation and maritime affairs. Data from Gaofen-1 and Gaofen-6 satellites have been distributed freely worldwide via a cloud platform, with about 550,000 users from 158 countries and regions accessing the data. In addition, five of China’s satellites and three satellite constellations have joined the mechanism of the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters, and meteorological satellite data have been used in 121 countries and regions. China has supported the space capacity building of developing countries and shared the achievements of China’s space development through various means, including infrastructure construction, talent training, and data application.

未来五年,中国航天坚持以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,遵循创新引领、协同高效、和平发展、合作共享的原则,锚定航天强国建设目标,以航天高质量发展为主题,推动空间科学、空间技术、空间应用的全面发展,为建设社会主义现代化强国、推动人类和平与发展作出积极贡献。

In the following five years, China’s space industry will continue to follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and adhere to the principles of innovation-driven, coordinated, efficient, and peaceful progress based on cooperation and sharing. Focusing on building China’s strength in aerospace and developing a high-quality space industry will promote the comprehensive development of space science, space technologies, and space applications to contribute to building a great modern socialist country and to humanity’s cause of peace and development.

一是创新推动重大工程实施。建成中国空间站和高分辨率对地观测系统,实施探月四期、行星探测等新的重大工程,推进重型运载火箭研制,建设近地小行星撞击风险应对体系,培育太阳系边际探测等重点项目,推动运载火箭型谱化发展,持续完善国家空间基础设施,健全空间环境治理体系能力。

First, we will promote the implementation of significant projects through innovation. We will build China’s space station and the High-Resolution Earth Observation System, implement new major projects, including the fourth phase of the Lunar Exploration Program and planetary exploration, and promote the research and development of heavy-lift launch vehicles. We will establish near-earth asteroid impact risk response systems, develop essential programs such as the boundary exploration of the solar system, and further expand the launch vehicle family. Furthermore, we will continue to upgrade national space infrastructure and improve the ability of the space environment governance system.

二是培育壮大空间应用产业。推动空间应用与数字经济深度融合,丰富应用场景,创新商业模式,深化通信、导航、遥感信息综合应用。加快航天技术成果向经济社会的转移转化,培育发展太空旅游、太空生物制药、太空育种等太空经济新业态。

Second, we will develop and expand the space application industry. We will promote the deep integration of space applications and the digital economy, enrich application scenarios, innovate business models, and deepen the comprehensive application of communications, navigation, and remote-sensing technologies. We will accelerate the transfer and transformation of space technology achievements to serve the economy and society and develop new business models of the space economy such as space travel, space biomedicine, and space breeding.

三是统筹布局空间科学探索。体系化推进空间天文、空间物理、月球与行星科学、空间地球科学等重点领域发展,研制空间引力波探测、爱因斯坦探针、先进天基太阳天文台等空间科学卫星,利用空间站、月球与深空探测器等平台,持续开展前沿科学探索和基础研究,催生更多原创性科学成果。

Third, we will make overall plans for research on space science. Critical areas such as space astronomy, space physics, lunar and planetary science, and space earth sciences will be systematically promoted. Space science satellites such as the satellite for space gravitational wave detection, the Einstein Probe, and an advanced space-based solar observatory will be developed. We will also use platforms including China’s space station and lunar and deep space probes to continuously carry out frontier science exploration and basic research to generate more original scientific findings.

四是营造航天发展良好环境。完善产学研用深度融合的创新体系,强化航天工业基础能力。制定卫星频率轨道资源管理、北斗卫星导航等条例,出台商业航天发展指导意见,促进法治航天建设。构建高水平航天人才队伍,加快打造航天领域世界重要人才中心和创新高地。开展航天科普教育和文化建设,大力弘扬航天精神,营造全社会崇尚科学、探索未知、勇于创新的氛围。

Fourth, we will create a sound environment for space industry development. The innovative systems that deeply integrate enterprises, universities, research institutes, and end-users will be improved and the fundamental capacity of the space industry will be strengthened. Regulations on managing satellite frequency, orbit resources and the BDS will be formulated. Guidelines for the development of the commercial space industry will be issued to promote the law-based governance of the space industry. China will build a high-level team of aerospace professionals and step up its efforts to become a world center for talent and innovation in space science. We will also carry out education campaigns to popularize space knowledge and culture, promote the spirit embodied in the development of China’s space industry, and create a favorable environment for the whole society to develop an interest in science, to explore the unknown, and to be bold in blazing new trails.

五是拓展国际合作深度广度。中国航天积极参与外空全球治理,在近地小天体监测与应对、行星保护、太空交通管理等领域贡献中国方案、中国智慧。启动国际月球科研站建设,落实金砖国家遥感卫星星座合作协定,推广空间信息服务全球应用,在月球探测、空间站、行星探测、北斗导航等领域,开展更加广泛、更多方式的国际互利合作。

Fifth, we will broaden and deepen international cooperation. China actively participates in the global governance of outer space and provides Chinese solutions to areas such as near-earth objects monitoring and response, planet protection, and space traffic management. In addition, China will work with other countries, international organizations, and partners to build an international research station on the moon, implement the cooperation agreements for the BRICS Remote-Sensing Satellite Constellation, and promote the global application of space information services. More extensive and diversified international mutually beneficial cooperation will also be carried out in lunar exploration, space station, planetary exploration, and the BDS.

和平探索与利用外层空间是全人类的共同梦想。仰望星空、不懈探索,携手共进、行稳致远,中国愿同国际社会一道,加快发展高质量、可持续、增福祉的航天事业,为推动构建人类命运共同体,促进人类文明进步与和平发展,作出新的开拓性贡献。

Exploration and utilization of outer space for peaceful purposes is the shared dream of all humanity. When we look up at the stars, we are in the meantime making unremitting efforts to explore the space. As long as we join hands, we will make steady progress in space exploration. China is ready to work with the international community to accelerate the development of a high-quality and sustainable space industry that can improve people’s wellbeing. In this way, China will also make new pioneering contributions to promoting the building of a community with a shared future for mankind and advancing the progress of human civilization and peaceful development.

谢谢大家。下面,我和我的同事愿意回答大家的提问。

Thank you. Now, my colleagues and I would like to answer your questions.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

谢谢吴艳华先生的介绍,大家已经非常踊跃地要举手提问了。

Thank you for your introduction, Mr. Wu. Everyone is already very enthusiastic about raising their hands for questions.

中央广播电视总台央视记者:

China Media Group:

吴艳华先生,在您刚才介绍的过程中,我们感觉到中国航天过去取得的成就,大家都是有目共睹的,未来尤其是“十四五”期间,中国航天还有哪些值得期待的亮点?谢谢。

Mr. Wu, we can see China’s achievements in the space sector from your briefing just now, and everyone sees it. What are the anticipated highlights of China’s space sector in the future, especially during the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025)? Thank you.

吴艳华:

Wu Yanhua:

谢谢您的提问。“十三五”中国航天亮点纷呈、成果丰硕。按照“十四五”规划,任务也异常艰巨。如果简单归纳来说,应该有这么几类:

Thank you for your question. China made many shining and fruitful achievements in the space sector during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020), yet the tasks in the 14th Five-Year Plan are particularly challenging. Simply put, they fall into the following categories.

第一类是我们要完成好十年前已经开始实施的国家重大工程的收官和运营工作,这里包括载人航天工程、北斗工程、高分辨率对地观测系统,也包括要用好探月工程“绕、落、回”的科研数据、月壤等,开展科学分析。

First, we will complete and continue the operations of the major national projects launched 10 years ago, such as the manned spaceflight project, the Beidou project, and the high-resolution Earth observation system, which also includes making good use of the scientific research data, lunar soil and other samples collected from the three-step lunar exploration program of orbiting, landing, and return for scientific analysis.

第二类是按照国家规划,我国要启动一批新的航天重大工程,包括探月工程四期、行星探测工程,我们还要论证实施重型运载火箭等一批重大工程,批复以后要接续实施。

Second, according to the national plan, China will launch a number of major space projects, including the fourth phase of the lunar exploration program and the planetary exploration program. We will also verify a number of major projects, such as heavy-lift launch vehicles, and implement them after approval.

第三类是我们要推动空间技术、空间应用一体化协同发展,尤其是要协同构建空间基础设施、包括三类卫星(通信、导航、遥感),形成完善的空间基础设施,推广卫星应用,广泛服务于经济社会发展,同时为全世界服务。

Third, we will integrate and coordinate the development of space technologies and space applications, especially the construction of space infrastructure, including three types of satellites (communications, navigation, and remote-sensing). We will develop sound space infrastructure and promote the application of satellites so that they can serve the economic and social development extensively at home and the whole world.

第四类是我们会统筹规划空间科学探索,发射一批科学论证的卫星。同时我们要用好空间站、月球探测和行星探测这些平台,深入开展科学研究,争取有原创性的科学发现,贡献人类。

Fourth, we will make overall plans for research on space science and launch a number of satellites for scientific verification. At the same time, we will make good use of the space station, lunar exploration, planetary exploration, and other platforms to carry out in-depth scientific research and strive for original scientific discoveries that contribute to humankind.

最后一个是进一步深化与国际同行的开放合作,无论是重大工程,还是其他各个方面,卫星研制、卫星应用、空间科学,也包括大中小学生的教育培养等方面,我们欢迎所有国际同行与中国航天开展多方式、深层次、多维度的合作。谢谢。

The last point is to further deepen the open cooperation with international peers in both major projects and other aspects like satellite research and development, satellite applications, space science, and education through the cultivation of university, middle school, and primary school students. We welcome multimodal, in-depth, and multi-dimensional cooperation among all of our international peers with China’s space sector. Thank you.

中央广播电视总台央广记者:

CNR:

根据刚才的介绍,我们也了解到,近五年来中国在航天领域取得了很多重要的成果。能否请您做一个简单的梳理,另外未来还有哪些重点的发展方向?谢谢。

We know from the introduction just now that China has made many important achievements in the space sector in the past five years. Could you please provide a brief review? Besides, what are the key development directions for the future? Thank you.

国家航天局探月与航天工程中心主任刘继忠:

Liu Jizhong:

我来回答一下这个问题。这五年来,通过探月工程,包括“天问一号”;还有空间科学工程任务,比如“悟空号”“墨子号”等。通过这些工程的实施,对空间科学起到了非常大的推动和带动作用。主要有以下几个方面:一是在历史演化方面,我们通过对月球浅层结构的研究,对月球的演化历史,特别是在地质方面,取得了新的认知。我们前期通过对“嫦娥五号”月球样品的分析和研究,把月球地质活动时间轴从原来大家认为的30亿年推演到20亿年,也就是说月球年轻了10亿年左右。这些对月球的认知,包括对月球地貌的演化,都起到非常关键的作用。二是从物质能量来讲,通过前期研究,我们发现了新的月球深部物质类型,同时也发现迄今比较精确的宇宙射线能谱精细结构。三是从空间环境来讲,通过几年科学研究,对月球粒子辐射剂量有了新的认知,得到了新的数值。还发现月球微磁层,对太阳风与月球相互作用建立了新模型、新机理。同时,通过从空间对地球的观测,我们也对地球等离子体层的整个活动演化取得了新的认知。

Let me take your questions. Over the past five years, China has boosted the development of space science through its lunar exploration program, the Tianwen-1 Mars probe and space science programs like the Wukong and Mozi satellites. It covers the following aspects: First, from the perspective of evolutionary history, we have gained a new understanding of the evolution of the moon, especially in geological terms, by studying the moon’s subsurface structure. Based on the analysis and research of lunar samples collected during the Chang’e-5 mission, we deduced that the geological activities of the moon date back to 2 billion years ago, which was previously thought to be 3 billion years ago. It means the moon is approximately 1 billion years younger. These understandings of the moon, including those of the evolution of the lunar landscape, are of crucial significance. Second, from the perspective of matter and energy, we discovered new types of lunar matter of deep-seated origin through preliminary studies and the relatively precise fine structure in the cosmic-ray energy spectrum. Third, from the perspective of the space environment, through several years of scientific research, we have a new understanding of the radiation of lunar particles and obtained new numerical values. We discovered the lunar micromagnetosphere, and established a new model and rationale for the interaction between solar wind and the moon. At the same time, we have gained a new understanding of the evolution of the Earth’s plasma layer activities through the observation of the Earth from space.

当然,还有很多科学成果。在取得这些成果的同时,我们围绕科学研究,建立了一批科学研究设施。这对于未来开展科学研究,以及与国际同行进行科学合作,都打下了非常好的基础。通过这些工程的实施,科学研究不断深入。据统计,有一百多所高校都建立了与空间科学领域相关的学科,也有很多留学生。这些为未来空间科学研究的人才储备奠定了非常好的基础,这非常重要。

Indeed, we have scored many scientific achievements as well. Meanwhile, we have established a batch of facilities for scientific research, which lays a solid foundation for future scientific research and cooperation with international peers. The implementation of these projects has further promoted scientific research. According to statistics, more than 100 colleges have set up disciplines related to space science and enrolled plenty of international students. These serve as a sound foundation for building a talent base for future space science research, which is crucial.

科学的进步对人类文明发展非常重要,后续中国的深空探测活动也不会停止。我们将围绕宇宙、太阳系及其行星演化,以及太阳活动对地球影响等问题,通过后续的探月工程四期、行星探测工程、空间站运行以及后续空间科学专项卫星任务,比如空间天文、空间物理探测等。通过这些任务的实施以及与各国同行的合作,我们一定会对空间科学的发展、人类的发展,起到重要的促进作用。谢谢!

Scientific progress is of paramount importance to the development of human civilization. Hence, China will not cease its deep space exploration. We will focus on issues including the universe, the solar system and development of its planets, and the influence of solar activity on earth. We will roll out tasks like the fourth phase of the lunar exploration program, the planetary exploration program, space station operations, and follow-up special satellite missions such as space astronomy and space physics exploration. By carrying out these tasks and cooperating with other countries, we will bolster the development of both space science and humanity. Thank you.

南方都市报记者:

Southern Metropolis Daily:

我们知道中国航天事业的发展离不开创新型科技人才的支持,请问咱们在培养和吸引创新型科技人才方面都有哪些措施?

We all know that the development of China’s space industry relies on the support of innovative scientists, engineers and technicians. What measures does the CNSA take to foster and attract such talents?

国家航天局新闻发言人许洪亮:

Xu Hongliang:

谢谢您的提问。中国航天经过六十多年的发展,取得了一系列举世瞩目的成就,也积淀形成了深厚博大的航天精神,特别是培养造就了一批特别优秀的人才。中国航天一直突出选人用人标准,包括政治关、品行关、能力关、作风关、廉洁关,培养造就一批有坚定理想信念、高昂爱国热情、强烈责任担当、良好精神风貌的航天人才队伍。比如像我们刚才已经讲到的“嫦娥团队”“天问团队”“神舟团队”“北斗团队”,平均年龄都在30-40岁之间。当然,任何事业的发展都离不开人才,航天事业的发展更需要引入更多新生力量加盟。所以在去年年底的中央人才工作会议上,习近平总书记也发出了“要建设新时代人才强国战略”的号召,所以我们航天也要积极贯彻这一伟大号召,制定了相关的规划和鼓励政策。

Thank you for your question. Through its development of more than six decades, China’s space industry has made remarkable achievements, formed spirits that are profound and broad, and fostered many extraordinary talents in particular. We have always put focus on standards of selecting and appointing professionals. The standards cover political conviction, moral conduct, ability, style, and honesty. As a result, we have fostered and cultivated a space talent team who stand firm in their ideals and convictions with strong patriotic enthusiasm, a great sense of responsibility, and a good mental outlook. For example, the average ages of the Chang’e team, Tianwen team, Shenzhou team, and BeiDou team are 30 to 40. The development of any cause is impossible without talent, so the development of the space industry needs new blood. At a central conference on talent-related work at the end of 2021, General Secretary Xi Jinping called on efforts to “implement the strategy on developing a quality workforce in the new era.” The space industry has followed his great call and formulated relevant plans and incentive policies.

在人才培养方面,我们采取了一系列举措。第一,通过重大工程牵引,不断加强战略科学家、科技领军人才、青年科技工作者和创新团队的培养,也包括大国工匠等。第二,强化人才交流机制,不断规范和引导人才交流。第三,强化激励机制。随着经济社会的发展,国家对科技人才的支持力度也越来越大。比如像一些社会组织、企业等设置了一些奖项,包括“钱学森最高成就奖”“航天贡献奖”等,起到了很好的激励作用。第四,加强学科建设和后备人才培养。刚才刘主任也介绍到了,像我们在空间科学方面开展的一些相关学科建设,我们通过共建高校、共建学科的方式,为祖国的航天事业不断培养人才。第五,广泛开展国际交流合作。特别是给一些发展中国家培养人才。比如,我们响应联合国号召,在空间教育方面设置了区域中心,为发展中国家培养了很多航天人才,为这些国家的发展提供助力。谢谢。

We have taken a series of measures in talent cultivation. First, through implementing the country’s major projects, we have enhanced the cultivation of strategic scientists, top sci-tech leaders, young sci-tech talent, innovative teams, and national craftsmen. Second, we have strengthened the mechanism of talent exchange to standardize and guide its development. Third, we have intensified incentive mechanisms. With the economic and social development, the national support for technological talent has scaled up. For instance, some social organizations and enterprises have established individual awards, including the Qian Xuesen Top Achievement Award and the Space Contribution Award, which effectively play an incentive role. Fourth, we have strengthened discipline building and talent reserve cultivation. As Mr. Liu introduced just now, we have carried out discipline construction on space science and fostered talent for China’s space industry through the joint building of colleges and disciplines. Fifth, we have extensively carried out international exchanges and cooperation and cultivated talent for some developing countries particularly. For instance, we have responded to the calls of the United Nations and established a regional center on space education to foster space talent for developing countries and facilitate their development. Thank you.

凤凰卫视记者:

Phoenix Satellite Television:

去年10月份,中国成功发射了太阳探测科学技术实验卫星“羲和号”,我们迈入了探日时代。请问截至目前“羲和号”任务反馈数据怎么样?未来中国的探日计划有哪些?谢谢。

Last October, China successfully sent solar exploration satellite Xihe into space, marking a new era of solar exploration. How has the data feedback from Xihe been, and what does the future of China hold in this field? Thank you.

国家航天局对地观测与数据中心主任赵坚:

Zhao Jian:

谢谢您的提问。首先,我想把“羲和号”卫星给大家简要介绍一下。“羲和号”卫星是我国首颗太阳探测的科学技术实验卫星。去年10月14日在太原卫星发射中心成功发射,标志着我国正式迈入了空间探日的时代,意义很重大。习近平总书记在今年的新年贺词中就提到了“羲和逐日”,这颗卫星也得到了广泛关注。

Thank you for your questions. First of all, I’d like to begin by briefly introducing Xihe—China’s first solar exploration science and technology experimental satellite. It was sent successfully into space from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on Oct. 14, 2021. This significant accomplishment marks China’s transition into a new era of solar exploration. General Secretary Xi Jinping referred to the Xihe satellite chasing the Sun in his 2022 New Year Address, bringing the satellite greater attention.

这颗卫星经过三个多月的在轨测试和实验,已经完成了卫星平台技术验证40多次,对太阳进行了探测成像290多次,卫星的平台及有关载荷工作稳定正常,功能和性能满足研制总要求。这颗卫星在轨还将继续执行相关的科学实验任务,和我们一起度过春节。

After more than three months of in-orbit tests and experiments, the satellite has completed more than 40 technical verifications and imaged the sun more than 290 times. The satellite platform and loads continue to operate normally and stably, and its functions and performance meet general development requirements. The satellite will continue its in-orbit scientific experiments during the Spring Festival holidays.

目前,“羲和号”卫星已经取得了一系列技术和科学实验成果。今年,中国国家航天局将择机正式发布。目前的一些主要进展,简要向大家作个介绍。

A slew of technological and scientific progress achieved by the satellite will be officially released later this year by CNSA, and I’d like to briefly introduce some of the major achievements here:

一是在轨验证了新型高精度卫星平台的超高指向精度和超高稳定度技术,与传统的同等惯量卫星平台相比,这颗卫星的指向精度和稳定精度均提高了两个数量级。

First, it demonstrated, in orbit, the ultra-high pointing accuracy and stabilizing technology of a new kind of satellite platform with high accuracy. Compared to traditional platforms with equal inertia, the pointing and stabilizing accuracies of Xihe are two-fold.

二是在太阳科学探测方面,这是在国际上首次在轨获得了太阳H-α谱线,全日面的H-α波段的光谱图像。太阳H-α谱线是什么?太阳的H-α谱线是光子与氢原子相互作用后,电子能级跃迁产生的谱线,是太阳暴发时响应最强烈的一个谱线,能够直接反映暴发的特征。以前,人类对太阳的观测,H-α谱线只能在地球上进行探测,但因为受到大气扰动,这个数据是不连续、不稳定的。现在通过卫星在轨进行探测,就可以去掉这些不稳定因素,对太阳进行高分辨率的观测和成像,可以更加准确地获得太阳暴发时大气温度、速度等物理量的变化,进而建立起太阳暴发从光球到日冕的能量积累、释放、传输的完整物理模型,对研究太阳暴发的动力学过程及物理机理提供关键数据,有望获得有国际影响力的科学产出。

Second, it has captured the solar Hα spectral line in orbit, which was the first time the world has seen full-disk images of the Sun in the Hα spectrum. What is the solar Hα spectral line? It occurs when the interaction between photons and hydrogen atoms brings electrons’ energy-level transition. As the brightest spectral line responding to the solar eruptions, it can directly reflect the characteristics of solar eruptions. Previously, the solar Hα spectral line could only be detected on Earth, but the data were discontinuous and unstable due to the atmospheric disturbance. Based on the satellite’s high-resolution observation and imaging of the sun, scientists can more accurately obtain the temperature and velocity changes in the solar atmosphere during solar eruptions, set up a complete physical mode of energy accumulation, release and transmit from photosphere to corona, and provide key data for studying the dynamic process and the physical mechanism of solar eruptions, which could be expected to become a scientific achievement with international iinfluence.  

“羲和号”登天探日,是继“嫦娥五号”成功实现月球采样返回,“天问一号”成功实现对火星的“绕、落、巡视”探测之后,在一年的时间之内,对太阳系中的地球、行星以及太阳这颗恒星的探测实现了全覆盖,奏响了深空探测的“三重奏”,为航天强国建设贡献了智慧和力量。关于我国未来的探日计划,目前科学家们正在开展相关的论证研究,将使我们进一步了解太阳构造,确定太阳活动特征,掌握其机理和活动规律,更好地预报空间天气,造福人类。谢谢。

With solar exploration satellite Xihe into space, the lunar samples brought back by the Chang’e-5 mission, and Tianwen-1’s landing and exploration of Mars, we have formed a deep-space exploration trio in one year, covering the solar system’s planets and star and contributing wisdom and strength to constructing our country as a major power in space. Referring to the plan for the future solar system exploration, scientists are conducting demonstration studies, helping us further understand the structure, characteristics, mechanism, and laws of solar system to better forecast the space weather and benefit human beings. Thanks.

北京青年报记者:

Beijing Youth Daily:

这部白皮书是中国政府发布的第五部航天白皮书。《2021中国的航天》和前四部相比有什么样的特色和亮点,能否介绍一下?谢谢。

This white paper is the fifth of its kind published by the Chinese government on the space program. What are the characteristics and highlights of the “China’s Space Program: A 2021 Perspective” compared with previous ones? Thank you.

许洪亮:

Xu Hongliang:

谢谢您的提问。正如您所说到的,这是我国第五部航天白皮书。从结构上看,这部白皮书以建设航天强国为主线,系统介绍了开启全面建设航天强国新征程的宗旨原则、政策措施和国际合作思路,重点从11个方面,把近五年以来我们在空间科学、空间技术、空间应用方面的成绩进行了总结,以及对未来五年的发展进行了重点描绘。在具体内容上,有三个特点:

Thanks for your question. As you mentioned, this is the fifth white paper on China’s space program. Structurally, the white paper, with the mainline of building China into a space power, systematically introduces the mission, principles, policies, measures, and ideas of international cooperation on a new journey towards a space power. Consisting of 11 aspects, the white paper summarizes our achievements in space science, space technologies, and space applications over the past five years. Furthermore, it outlines the future development in the next five years. Specifically speaking, it has three characteristics.

第一,充分体现了高质量发展理念。中国一直致力于航天治理现代化,积极制定相关政策措施,充分发挥有为政府和有效市场作用,营造良好发展环境,推动航天事业高质量发展。从创新驱动角度,通过实施重大科技工程,引领创新超越发展,持续优化创新生态。在基础能力方面,我们持续完善“三商一公”结构,优化产业布局,加快工业化和信息化融合发展。在发展模式上,我们鼓励支持商业航天企业发展,不断优化商业航天在我们产业链中的布局,加快航天低成本、高效益发展。在治理能力上,我们将加快航天法立法,制定相关政策法规,促进法治航天建设。在人才培养方面,我们贯彻中央人才工作会议精神,完善人才培养、交流和奖励机制,厚植人才发展沃土。在文化建设方面,我们加强航天科普传播、弘扬航天精神,加强文化建设,提高全民科学素养。

First, it fully embodies the concept of high-quality development. The Chinese government has been committed to modernizing space governance. We have been proactive in formulating relevant policies and measures, given full play to a well-functioning government and an efficient market, and created a favorable environment for the growth of the high-quality space industry. In terms of innovation-driven development, we will strengthen original innovation and optimize the environment for innovation by implementing major space programs. In terms of basic capabilities, we will continue to improve its integrated and open industrial system comprising system integrators, specialized contractors, market suppliers, and public service providers, optimize the industrial structure, and further integrate industrialization with information technology. In terms of the development model, we will encourage and support the development of commercial space enterprises, optimize the distribution of the space industry in the national industrial chain, and accelerate the cost-efficient development of space. In terms of governance capacity, we will speed up the formulation of a national space law and work out relevant policies and regulations to promote law-based governance. In terms of talent cultivation, we will implement the guiding principles of the central conference on talent-related work, improve the mechanism for talent cultivation, exchange, and reward, and strengthen the foundation for talent development. In terms of cultural development, we will promote space education, communication, culture, and spirit embodied in space development in order to increase scientific knowledge among the general public.

第二,支撑国家重大战略需求。大家都知道,建设平安中国、健康中国、美丽中国、数字中国,已经成为建设社会主义现代化强国的重要组成部分。中国航天也一直在支撑国家战略发展,不断提升发展效益效能。一方面,加强卫星应用与行业区域发展深度融合,强化空间信息和大数据、云计算、物联网等信息技术深度融合,拓展卫星公益服务应用。另一方面,我们要加大航天成果转化和技术转移,为国民经济各领域和大众生活提供更加优质、更加便利服务,不断壮大我们太空经济规模,为我们建设科技强国、交通强国、制造强国、网络强国贡献航天力量。

Second, it serves the country’s primary strategic needs. We all know that building a safe, healthy, beautiful, and digital China has become an essential part of China’s socialist modernization. China’s space industry has always supported national strategic development and continued to improve its efficiency. On the one hand, we will intensify the integration of satellite applications with the development of industries and regions, space information with information technology such as big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things, and boost public services with satellites. On the other hand, we will expand the application and transfer of space technology and provide more convenient and high-quality services for all industries and sectors, and the public. We will also expand China’s space economy to make a significant contribution to building China’s strengths in science and technology, transport, manufacturing, and cyberspace.

第三,彰显积极开放合作姿态。这部白皮书首次提出了我们要在外空领域推动共建人类命运共同体,以更加积极开放的姿态广泛开展国际交流合作。一是过去主要是载荷搭载,下一步要向任务筹划延伸。二是从单机产品合作向复杂系统联合研制升级。三是从单个典型场景应用向多领域综合应用拓展,使航天活动更好地造福于全人类,也推动人类社会的文明进步。

Third, it demonstrates a positive attitude of openness and cooperation. For the first time, the white paper proposes that we will build a community with a shared future for mankind in utilizing outer space and be more open and active in engaging in extensive international exchanges and cooperation. First, besides international onboard payload cooperation, we will expand cooperation on mission planning. Second, collaboration will be upgraded from a single product to joint development of complex systems. Third, the application will be expanded from a typical scenario to a comprehensive application in multiple fields. By doing these, space activities can better benefit humanity and promote the progress of human civilization.

这是我的回答,谢谢。

That’s my answer. Thank you.

吴艳华:

Wu Yanhua:

刚才洪亮秘书长说得还是很全面的,我简单补充一下。第一,我们航天重大工程正处在一个承上启下的转折点。因为中国航天崇尚长远规划,一张蓝图绘到底。刚才我也介绍了上一批15年前的重大工程,基本到了收官收尾和正常运营应用阶段。中国政府正在规划实施未来15年新的重大工程、重大任务。第二,我们在白皮书里也说到,空间科学、空间技术、空间应用要全面发展,形象地说叫“一体两翼”发展。中国航天过去更加注重空间技术推动,新时代我们更强调以空间应用和空间科学研究的新发现来引领技术创新,就是“两翼”要飞起来,推动可持续发展。第三,我们在国际合作上要更加开放,要在更高层级、更大项目上与国际伙伴、国际同行合作。我们刚才也介绍了,比如,我们与俄罗斯要共同发起国际月球科研站计划,这是一个非常庞大的、持续时间长的国际科学合作大工程、大计划。我们欢迎所有感兴趣、愿参加的国家、国际组织、科学家、工程师们的参与。谢谢。

Mr. Xu has already given a very detailed answer. I would just like to add a few points. First, our major space projects are at a juncture between two stages. First, China has developed a long-term plan for its space program. Just now, I introduced the last group of major projects, which were launched 15 years ago and have entered the phases of completion, operation, and application. The Chinese government is planning new major projects and tasks for the next 15 years. Second, as stated in the white paper, China will integrate space science, technology, and applications. In the past, China paid greater attention to space technology. In the new era, we will emphasize advancing technological innovation through space applications and new discoveries in space science to promote sustainable development. Third, we will be more open to international cooperation and collaboration with international partners and counterparts at a higher level and larger projects. For example, as I said, China and Russia will jointly launch an international lunar research station project. It will be an extensive and long-lasting international scientific cooperation project. We welcome the participation of all the countries, international organizations, scientists, and engineers interested in the project. Thanks.

新华社记者:

Xinhua News Agency:

我们知道,航天发展需要高投入,请问发布人,如何看待这种高投入?同时也请您介绍一下中国航天事业是如何服务经济社会发展、增进人民福祉的?谢谢。

We know that space development requires high investment. How do you view the investment? How does China’s space industry serve its economic and social development and help improve the people’s well-being? Thanks.

赵坚:

Zhao Jian:

谢谢您的提问。航天事业是人类共同的事业。习近平总书记在首个“中国航天日”明确指出,“探索浩瀚宇宙,发展航天事业,建设航天强国,是我们不懈追求的航天梦”。航天是一个国家科学技术综合发展水平的重要体现,发展航天当“致广大而尽精微”,既要推动空间科学、空间技术的跨越发展,又要将科技创新的成果转化为推动经济社会发展的动力。

Thank you for your questions. Space development is the common cause of mankind. On the first China Space Day, General Secretary Xi Jinping said, “To explore the vast cosmos, develop the space industry and build China into a space power is a dream we pursue unremittingly.” The space industry reflects a country’s overall development of science and technology. In developing the space industry, we must “attain to the broad and great while addressing the delicate and minute.” We need to promote the leap-frog development of space science and space technology and transform the achievements of scientific and technological innovation into the forces driving economic and social development.

首先,我国对航天发展高度重视,全国人民对航天发展也给予了大力支持。航天的发展确实是需要高投入。但是,航天及其应用所产生的效益更大。据初步统计,可以达到1:10以上的投入产出比。航天新技术的应用,带来了产业发展的巨大变革,航天技术成果转化对国民经济发展的拉动作用十分明显,推动了智慧交通、新能源新材料等发展,对支撑全面建成小康社会也发挥了重要的作用。因此,航天的高投入能够带来高产出,整体效益十分明显。

First, China attaches great importance to space development, and the Chinese people have provided strong support. Space development indeed requires high investment. However, space development and applications can yield substantial benefits. According to preliminary statistics, the input-output ratio of the space industry can exceed 1:10. The application of new space technology has brought about tremendous changes in industrial development. The transformation and applications of space technology serve as strong forces driving economic growth and the development of smart transportation, new energy, new materials, etc. They also play an essential role in supporting the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Therefore, the high investment in the space industry can produce a high output, and the overall benefit is considerable.

其次,航天应用已经广泛用于国土资源调查、环境保护、农业发展、林草监测、防灾减灾、气象预报、海洋开发、交通运输、教育医疗、城乡建设等经济社会各个领域,衍生出的新技术应用,也已经进入千家万户,老百姓也能切身体会到航天科技所创造的美好生活。例如,通信广播卫星可以为民众开通全球移动通信、广播电视直播以及提供高速宽带上网,极大方便了人们在信息时代的数字化生活;卫星导航定位成了人们日常生活中不可或缺的助手,极大方便了人们的交通和出行,改变了人们的生产和生活方式;气象卫星可以提供全球和特定地区的精准气象预报,为人们的衣食住行提供暖心、周到的气象保障。

Second, aerospace applications have been widely used in various economic and social fields, such as land and resources surveys, environmental protection, agricultural development, forests and grasslands monitoring, disaster prevention and mitigation, weather forecasting, marine development, transportation, education, medical care, and urban and rural construction. In addition, the derived applications of new technologies from aerospace applications have also entered thousands of households. Ordinary people can also experience and feel the improvements to life created by aerospace technologies. For example, communication and broadcasting satellites can provide people with global mobile communications, live radio and television broadcasts, and high-speed broadband internet access, which greatly helped facilitate people’s digital lives in the information age; satellite navigation positioning has become an indispensable assistant in people’s daily lives, which has greatly facilitated people’s transportation and travel and changed people’s means of work and lifestyle. Meanwhile, meteorological satellites can provide accurate weather forecasts around the world and in specific regions and provide weather guarantees for people’s clothing, food, housing, and transportation.

再举个例子,卫星用于防灾减灾方面的成效更加显著。高分卫星制作的台风观测高清云图,可以清晰地观测到台风眼的结构以及运动变化的规律,对全球全年产生的台风无漏报,极大地减少了防灾减灾的成本,经济社会效益非常显著。此外,高分系列卫星在预防森林大火和应对洪涝灾害等方面也发挥了十分重要的作用。前一段时间汤加发生了火山爆发,中国国家航天局应急启动了对地观测卫星系统,调动了十余颗卫星进行高频次观测,及时将相关影像数据提供给国际组织,贡献中国力量。

As another example, satellites are more effective for disaster prevention and mitigation. The high-definition nephograms of typhoon observations produced by high-resolution satellites can clearly observe the structure of a typhoon eye and the pattern of movement and changes, and there were no omissions for typhoons occurred throughout the year around the world. This greatly reduces the cost of disaster prevention and mitigation, and the economic and social benefits are significant. In addition, high-resolution satellites have also played a very important role in preventing forest fires and responding to floods. Recently, a volcanic eruption occurred in Tonga. The CNSA launched the Earth Observation System in an emergency capacity, mobilized more than a dozen satellites to conduct high-frequency observations, and provided relevant imagery data to international organizations in a timely manner.

第三,航天的发展不仅推动了航天产业链的快速形成,而且赋能传统产业,促使产业升级换代和提质增效。大家都知道,航天产业是高度复杂化和规模化的集合,将有力推动全产业链发展。从世界范围来看也是这样的,具备坚实基础的航天产业正在成为商业航天发展的沃土、多领域人才聚集高地以及新技术融合创新的桥头堡。当前,航天技术辐射带动作用日益提升,相关产业发展势头良好,在发展的模式上也逐步形成了行业应用集约化、爆发式增长。形成央企集团向地方辐射发展,地方政府鼓励特色企业聚集发展,优势民营资本参与专业化投资等新发展格局。通过商业化发展,将与政府投入形成合力,进一步提高航天发展效益。

Third, the development of the aerospace sector not only promotes the rapid formation of the aerospace industry chain but also empowers traditional industries, promoting industrial upgrading and improving quality and efficiency. The aerospace industry is a highly complex and large-scale aggregation, which will help vigorously promote the development of the entire industry chain. It is the same everywhere from a global perspective. A solidly founded aerospace industry is becoming fertile ground for commercial aerospace development, a highland for talents from multiple fields, and a bridgehead for new technology integration and innovation. At present, aerospace technologies are increasingly playing a role in driving growth of related industries, as the result, the latter are showing a great development momentum, and a pattern of intensive, explosive growth of industrial applications has gradually formed. New development patterns have been shaped: centrally-administered state-owned enterprises driving the development of local areas, local governments encouraging characteristic enterprises to gather and develop, and advantageous private capital participating in specialized investment. Through commercial development, these will form a synergy with government investment to further improve the efficiency of aerospace development.

我们相信,航天发展将不断增进人民福祉,有力推动联合国可持续发展目标的实现。航天技术的进一步开发和利用,也将帮助我们共同守护好这颗蓝色星球,造福民众。谢谢!

We believe that aerospace development will continuously improve people’s wellbeing and vigorously promote the realization of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. The further development and utilization of aerospace technologies will also help us jointly guard this blue planet and benefit the people. Thank you!

封面新闻记者:

Cover News:

据悉,目前国家已批复探月工程四期任务,包括嫦娥六号、嫦娥七号、嫦娥八号任务,这三项任务将在未来十年陆续实施,请问能否介绍一下具体安排,有何重要意义?谢谢。

We have learned that China has approved the fourth phase of its lunar exploration program, including the Chang’e-6, Chang’e-7, and Chang’e-8 missions. These three missions will be launched over the next ten years. Could you brief us on the specific arrangements? How important are these missions? Thank you.

刘继忠:

Liu Jizhong:

谢谢。探月工程,从2004年实施以来,到2020年“嫦娥五号”携月球样品返回地球,圆满完成了探月工程一、二、三期“绕、落、回”目标任务。实际上,按照科学发展的规律,我们在“十三五”期间,就启动了探月工程后续任务的研究工作。经过规划,探月四期包括了四次任务。

Thank you. China’s lunar exploration program was first launched in 2004. As of 2020, when Chang’e-5 brought lunar samples back to Earth, we have completed the first three phases of the program, which were “orbiting, landing, and returning.” Based on scientific principles, we have kicked off the research work on the follow-up missions of the lunar exploration program during the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). The fourth phase consists of four missions as planned.

第一次任务,是我们已经发射的“嫦娥四号”,这个大家都知道,落在了月球背面,已经成功实施。后续还有三次任务,一个是“嫦娥六号”,“嫦娥六号”要到月球的高价值地区进行采样返回,可以说后续还有新的月壤、新的样品返回地球;“嫦娥七号”主要是对月球极区进行科学探测,特别是对月球的水分布进行探测;“嫦娥八号”将实施极区的科学探测以及为科研站后续的关键技术进行验证。

The first mission was the Chang’e-4 probe, which, as we know, landed on the far side of the moon and was successfully completed. There will be another three follow-up missions. The Chang’e-6 lunar probe is expected to collect samples in more valuable areas of the moon and return home. Therefore, new lunar soil and samples will be brought back to the Earth. The Chang’e-7 probe is expected to conduct scientific exploration in the moon’s polar regions and give us data on the water distribution of the moon. Finally, the Chang’e-8 probe will continue to explore the polar regions and test core technologies concerning the follow-up work of the research station.

整个探月四期,我们基本上要达到建设科研站基本型的目标,同时也是为后续我们与国际合作建设国际月球科研站打下基础。这些任务我们和国际同行也在密切沟通协调,将一起合作开展相关探测。比如,“嫦娥七号”任务已经和俄罗斯的“luna-26”签订了协议,共同进行探测。按照目前整体研制进展,在2025年前后,我们将完成“嫦娥六号”和“嫦娥七号”的相关工作,同时开展“嫦娥八号”的研制;在2030年之前,要完成“嫦娥八号”发射。综上,到2030年以前,我们探月四期能够取得预期成果。谢谢。

Our fundamental goal throughout the four phases of the lunar exploration program is to establish a basic model for the research station and lay the foundation for us to cooperate with other countries in establishing the ILRS. We have been in close contact with our peers around the world and will jointly conduct exploration work regarding these missions. For example, a deal agreed with Russia means that the Chang’e-7 mission will conduct joint exploration with Russia’s “lunar-26” project. Based on our current R&D progress, all work involved in the Chang’e-6 and Chang’e-7 missions will be completed in 2025. The R&D of the Chang’e-8 mission will kick off in the same year, and the probe will be launched by 2030. To conclude, we are set to achieve the expected results of the fourth phase of the lunar exploration program by 2030. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

时间关系,最后一个问题。

Due to time constraints, we will have one last question.

环球时报记者:

Global Times:

刚才吴副局长还有刘主任都提到中国和俄罗斯合作建设的国际月球科研站。能否再详细介绍一下国际月球科研站的有关情况,以及后续将如何开展工作?谢谢。

Just now, Mr. Wu and Mr. Liu mentioned the ILRS project jointly launched by China and Russia. Could you further elaborate on this project? Also, how will the follow-up work be carried out? Thank you.

吴艳华:

Wu Yanhua:

谢谢。以前媒体也公开报道过,2021年3月中俄两国政府签署了国际月球科研站的合作谅解备忘录,4月中俄航天机构发布了联合声明,6月双方还向国际社会发布了国际月球科研站路线图和国际合作伙伴指南。刚才刘主任也介绍了,国际月球科研站是2016年提出的一个概念,国际上很多国家也在响应这个概念。总体来说,像地球的南极站、北极站一样,未来倾向于在月球南极建成地面科考设施,在月轨、月表建设科研实验设施,开展多学科、多目标科研工作。

Thank you. It was reported that in March 2021, the Chinese and Russian governments signed a memorandum of understanding on the cooperation of the ILRS. In April, China and Russia’s aerospace authorities issued a joint statement. In June, the two sides jointly released a roadmap and a guide for the ILRS, inviting all interested countries, international organizations, and partners to cooperate in the project. Just now, Mr. Liu introduced that the ILRS was proposed in 2016, and many countries around the world are also responding to it. In general, like the Antarctic and Arctic research stations, we tend to build a scientific experiment base at the lunar south pole in the future and build scientific research facilities in lunar orbit and on the lunar surface that can carry out multi-disciplinary and multi-objective scientific research activities.

第一,中俄基于各自的计划和规划联合发起国际月球科研站。中国探月工程四期的目标,就是要初步建设国际月球科研站的基本型,我们的“嫦娥六号”“嫦娥七号”和俄罗斯规划的相应任务,用五年左右的时间,要完成建站之前的勘察工作。我们再用十年左右的时间,完成设施建设,像建立一个小城镇一样,它要有能源系统,要有通信导航系统,要有远程运输系统,要有天地往返系统,还要有地面支持系统,如果远期要有人的话,还要有生命保障系统。中俄也广泛欢迎国际同行参与。我想,这些系统是面向未来的,也就是说规划到2035年之前,要以这些任务为重点。2035年以后,根据各个国家、各个组织的科考任务分次到月球上做科考。

First, China and Russia launched the ILRS based on their respective lunar exploration plans. The goal of the fourth phase for the Chinese lunar exploration program is to build a basic model of an international lunar scientific research station. We will use the next five years to conduct exploration before setting up a lunar research station, which are the objectives of China’s Chang’e-6 and Chang’e-7 missions. Russia has other relevant arrangements. It will take us another 10 years or so to complete the construction of facilities. Like building a small town, a lunar research station must be equipped with energy, communication, navigation, long-distance transportation, lunar-earth round-trip capabilities, and ground support systems. There must also be a life support system if there are to be people in the station in the future. China and Russia also welcome the participation of international counterparts. I think these systems are future-oriented, which means that our plans for 2035 will focus on these tasks. After 2035, various countries and organizations will conduct scientific expeditions on the moon in stages according to their plans.

第二,中俄两国要签署政府间协定。我们正在紧锣密鼓地磋商,已基本达成共识,今年有望尽早签署。中俄两国航天机构还要向全世界正式发布建设国际月球科研站的宣言,把建设原则、参与宗旨向国际社会发布。总的来说,是在任务或者项目的各个阶段,包括建设的各种任务层级,无论是系统级、分系统级还是设备级,还是科学数据共享研究级,包括天地支持级,我们都不设限,一块儿来建。或者中俄各自牵头的任务也开放合作,提供搭载机会,共享科研数据等。

Second, China and Russia will sign an intergovernmental agreement. We have been negotiating in full swing and reached a consensus, which is expected to be signed as soon as possible this year. The Chinese and Russian space authorities will officially release the declaration on constructing an international lunar research station and publish the construction principles and purposes to the international community. Generally speaking, at all stages, at all levels of construction, including systems, sub-systems, and facilities, and in terms of sharing research data and space-ground support system, we have set no limits and welcome the world to join in its construction. The missions led by China and Russia are also open to cooperation, providing opportunities for other countries to participate and share scientific research data.

我就介绍这些。谢谢。

That’s all for my answer to this question. Thank you.

邢慧娜:

Xing Huina:

由于时间关系,今天的发布会就先到这儿。感谢四位发布人,也感谢各位媒体朋友们。

Due to time constraints, today’s press conference is concluded here. Thanks to all speakers and journalists.

吴艳华:

Wu Yanhua:

感谢媒体朋友对中国航天事业的关心关注和鼓励支持,以及你们对航天的科普与文化传播。谢谢你们!

Thank you, friends from the media, for your concern, encouragement, and support for China’s aerospace industry, as well as your promotion of aerospace knowledge. Thank you all!

来源:国新办 日期:2022年2月21日

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