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发布日期:2019-12-19      阅读数:2992 次

英语中有19种主要的修辞手法,它们分别是:Simile明喻、Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻、Metonymy 借喻,转喻、Synecdoche 提喻、Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉、Personification 拟人、Hyperbole 夸张、Parallelism 排比, 平行、Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法、Allegory 讽喻,比方、Irony 反语、Pun 双关、Parody 仿拟、Rhetorical question 修辞疑问、Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶、Paradox 隽语、Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻、Climax 渐进法,层进法、Anticlimax 渐降法。

1. Simile 明喻
明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比。这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属性。标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等。

He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow.
I wandered lonely as a cloud.
 Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.
2. Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻


Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.
Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.
3. Metonymy 借喻,转喻

I. 以容器代替内容:

The kettle boils.
 The room sat silent.
II. 以资料、工具代替事物的名称:

Lend me your ears, please.
III. 以作者代替作品:

a complete Shakespeare
VI. 以具体事物代替抽象概念:

I had the muscle, and they made money out of it.
4. Synecdoche 提喻


There are about 100 hands working in his factory.
 He is the Newton of this century.
The fox goes very well with your cap.
5. Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉


The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.
Taste the music of Mozart.
6. Personification 拟人


The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.
I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.
7. Hyperbole 夸张


I beg a thousand pardons.
Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.
When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.
8. Parallelism 排比, 平行


No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.
In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.
9. Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法


He is out visiting the necessary.
His relation with his wife has not been fortunate.
Deng Xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)
10. Allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)


Make the hay while the sun shines.
It’s time to turn plough into sword.
11. Irony 反语


It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.
“Of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you.” the waiter said to the beggar.
12. Pun 双关


She is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise.
An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.
If we don’t hang together, we shall hang separately.
13. Parody 仿拟


Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.
A friend in need is a friend to be avoided.
If you give a girl an inch nowadays she will make address of it.
14. Rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反问)


How was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note?
Shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?
15. Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶


Not that I loved Caeser less but that I loved Romemore.
You are staying; I am going.
Give me liberty, or give me death.
16.Paradox 隽语


More haste, less speed.
The child is the father to the man.
17. Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻


No light, but rather darkness visible.
The state of this house is cheerless welcome.
18. Climax 渐进法,层进法


I am sorry, I am so sorry, I am so extremely sorry.
Eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.
19. Anticlimax 渐降法


On his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots.

The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes.

来源:网络 日期:2019年12月19日



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