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气候变化:对人类福祉和地球健康的威胁

发布日期:2022-07-12      阅读数:50 次

Climate change: a threat to human wellbeing and health of the planet

气候变化:对人类福祉和地球健康的威胁

Taking action now can secure our future

现在采取行动可保障我们的未来

Human-induced climate change is causing dangerous and widespread disruption in nature and affecting the lives of billions of people around the world, despite efforts to reduce the risks. People and ecosystems least able to cope are being hardest hit, according to the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.

人为造成的气候变化正给自然界造成危险而广泛的破坏,并影响着全球数十亿人的生活,尽管人们已在努力减少此类风险。在政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)今日发布的最新报告中,科学家们表示,最不具备应对能力的人群和生态系统受到的打击反而最严重。

induce [ɪnˈdjuːs] v. 引诱;引起

“This report is a dire warning about the consequences of inaction,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC. “It shows that climate change is a grave and mounting threat to our wellbeing and a healthy planet. Our actions today will shape how people and nature responds to increasing climate risks.”

“这份报告是我们在这个星球上的未来蓝图”,IPCC主席李会晟表示。“这份报告表明,气候变化是对我们的福祉和对地球健康的现存威胁,而今天的行动将决定着人类和自然如何适应不断增加的气候风险”。

dire / ˈdaɪə(r) / adj. 严重的,危急的,极端的

The world faces unavoidable multiple climate hazards over the next two decades with global warming of 1.5°C (2.7°F). Even temporarily exceeding this warming level will result in additional severe impacts, some of which will be irreversible.

这份最新报告表明,当今所承受的气候变化影响和风险在未来几十年将大幅增加。即使全球升温暂时超过1.5°C(2.7°F)也会对自然界造成严重且通常不可逆的影响。

irreversible / ˌɪrɪˈvɜːsəbl / adj. 不可逆转的,不可改变的

Urgent action required to deal with increasing risks

需采取紧急行动应对不断增加的风险

Increased heatwaves, droughts and floods are already exceeding plants and animals’ tolerance thresholds, driving mass mortalities in species such as trees and corals. These weather extremes are occurring simultaneously, causing cascading impacts that are increasingly difficult to manage. They have exposed millions of people to acute food and water insecurity, especially in Africa, Asia, Central and South America, on Small Islands and in the Arctic.

更多的热浪、干旱和洪水已超过了植物和动物的承受极限,导致树木和珊瑚等物种大量死亡。此类天气极端事件在同步发生,并在造成一连串日益难以应对的影响。这使数百万人陷入了急剧的粮食和水不安全境地,尤其是在非洲、亚洲、中美洲和南美洲以及小岛屿。

threshold / ˈθreʃhəʊld / n. 门槛,阈,界

cascade / kæˈskeɪd / v. 如瀑布般下落;大量倾泻 n. 小瀑布

To avoid mounting loss of life, biodiversity and infrastructure, ambitious, accelerated action is required to adapt to climate change, at the same time as making rapid, deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions. So far, progress on adaptation is uneven and there are increasing gaps between action taken and what is needed to deal with the increasing risks, the new report finds. These gaps are largest among lower-income populations.

为了避免生命、生物多样性和基础设施损失不断增加,需加快采取雄心勃勃的行动来适应气候变化,同时迅速大幅减少温室气体排放。这份最新报告表明,迄今为止,在适应气候变化方面的进展并不均衡,且已采取的行动与应对日益增长的风险所需采取的行动之间的差距越来越大。这样的差距在低收入人群中最大。

“This report recognizes the interdependence of climate, biodiversity and people and integrates natural, social and economic sciences more strongly than earlier IPCC assessments,” said Hoesung Lee. “It emphasizes the urgency of immediate and more ambitious action to address climate risks.”

“这份报告认识到了气候、生物多样性与人类之间的相互依存性,而且对自然科学、社会科学和经济科学的结合比IPCC以前的评估报告更紧密,”李会晟表示。“报告强调了迫切需要采取紧急行动来应对气候风险”。

There are options to adapt to a changing climate. This report provides new insights into nature’s potential not only to reduce climate risks but also to improve people’s lives.

要适应不断变化的气候,我们有多种选择。这份报告对自然在减少气候风险并改善人们生活方面的潜力提供了新见解。

“Healthy ecosystems are more resilient to climate change and provide life-critical services such as food and clean water”, said IPCC Working Group II Co-Chair Hans-Otto Pörtner. “By restoring degraded ecosystems and effectively and equitably conserving 30 to 50 per cent of Earth’s land, freshwater and ocean habitats, society can benefit from nature’s capacity to absorb and store carbon, and we can accelerate progress towards sustainable development, but adequate finance and political support are essential.”

“健康的生态系统对气候变化更有韧性,并可提供对生命攸关的服务,例如粮食和清洁的水”,IPCC第二工作组联合主席Hans-Otto Pörtner表示。“通过恢复退化的生态系统以及保护地球30%至50%的陆地、淡水和海洋栖息地,社会可受益于大自然吸收和储存碳的能力,我们可以加速推进可持续发展,但充分的资金和政治支持至关重要”。

resilient / rɪˈzɪliənt / adj. 有弹性的,能复原的,适应性强的

Scientists point out that climate change interacts with global trends such as unsustainable use of natural resources, growing urbanization, social inequalities, losses and damages from extreme events and a pandemic, jeopardizing future development.

科学家们指出,气候变化会与自然资源过度消耗、快速城市化、社会不平等、由极端事件和流行病造成的损失和损害等全球趋势产生相互作用,危及未来的发展。

jeopardize / ˈdʒepədaɪz / v. 危及,损害

“Our assessment clearly shows that tackling all these different challenges involves everyone – governments, the private sector, civil society – working together to prioritize risk reduction as well as equity and justice in decision-making and investment”, said IPCC Working Group II Co-Chair Debra Roberts.

“我们的评估报告明确表明,应对所有这些不同的挑战事关每个人——政府、私营部门、民间社会——要共同努力,重点放在减少风险以及放在决策和投资中的公平和正义”,IPCC第二工作组联合主席Debra Roberts表示。

prioritize / praɪˈɒrətaɪz / v. 优先考虑,优先处理

“In this way, different interests, values and world views can be reconciled. By bringing together scientific and technological know-how as well as Indigenous and local knowledge, solutions will be more effective. Failure to achieve climate resilient and sustainable development will result in a sub-optimal future for people and nature.”

“这样便可调和不同的利益、价值观和世界观。通过结合科学技术知识以及土著知识和地方知识,解决方案将能够更加有效。如果不能实现具有气候恢复力的可持续发展将给人类和自然带来并不理想的未来。”

reconcile / ˈrekənsaɪl / v. 调和;和解

Cities: Hotspots of impacts and risks, but also a crucial part of the solution

城市:既是影响和风险的热点,也是解决方案的关键部分

This report provides a detailed assessment of climate change impacts, risks and adaptation in cities, where more than half the world’s population lives. People’s health, lives and livelihoods, as well as property and critical infrastructure, including energy and transportation systems, are being increasingly adversely affected by hazards from heatwaves, storms, drought and flooding as well as slow-onset changes, including sea level rise.

这份报告对气候变化对全球半数以上人口所居住的城市的影响、风险和适应进行了详细评估。人类的健康、生活和生计以及财产和重要基础设施,包括能源和运输系统,正日益受到因热浪、风暴、干旱和洪水带来的灾害以及缓发变化(包括海平面上升)的不利影响。

adversely / ˈædvɜːsli/ adv. 不利的,有害的

“Together, growing urbanization and climate change create complex risks, especially for those cities that already experience poorly-planned urban growth, high levels of poverty and unemployment, and a lack of basic services”, Debra Roberts said.

“总之,快速的城市化和气候变化会带来复合的风险,尤其是对那些本身增长规划不善、贫困和失业率居高以及缺乏基本服务的城市”,Debra Roberts表示。

“But cities also provide opportunities for climate action – green buildings, reliable supplies of clean water and renewable energy, and sustainable transport systems that connect urban and rural areas can all lead to a more inclusive, fairer society.”

“但城市也可为气候行动提供机遇——绿色建筑、可靠的清洁水和可再生能源供应,以及连接城乡地区的可持续运输系统,而这些都可带来更为包容和更加公平的社会”。

There is increasing evidence of adaptation that has caused unintended consequences, for example destroying nature, putting peoples’ lives at risk or increasing greenhouse gas emissions. This can be avoided by involving everyone in planning, attention to equity and justice, and drawing on Indigenous and local knowledge.

有越来越多的证据表明,适应造成了意想不到的后果,例如破坏自然、使人们的生命处于危险中或增加温室气体排放。要避免这种情况就需要人人参与规划、关注公平和正义并利用土著和地方知识。

draw on 利用

A narrowing window for action

行动的机会窗口在关闭

Climate change is a global challenge that requires local solutions and that’s why the Working Group II contribution to the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) provides extensive regional information to enable Climate Resilient Development.

气候变化是一项全球挑战,需要地方解决方案,因此IPCC第六次评估报告(AR6)第二工作组的报告提供了大量区域信息,以实现具有气候恢复力的发展。

The report clearly states Climate Resilient Development is already challenging at current warming levels. It will become more limited if global warming exceeds 1.5°C (2.7°F). In some regions it will be impossible if global warming exceeds 2°C (3.6°F). This key finding underlines the urgency for climate action, focusing on equity and justice. Adequate funding, technology transfer, political commitment and partnership lead to more effective climate change adaptation and emissions reductions.

该报告明确指出,具有气候恢复力的发展在如今的温度下已面临着挑战,在全球升温1.5°C(2.7°F)时将会更加受限。在有些地区,如果升温超过2°C(3.6°F),这种发展将不可能实现。这一关键发现强调了采取气候行动的紧迫性,重点在公平和正义。充足的资金、政治承诺和伙伴关系可更有效地适应气候变化、减少排放。

“The scientific evidence is unequivocal: climate change is a threat to human wellbeing and the health of the planet. Any further delay in concerted global action will miss a brief and rapidly closing window to secure a liveable future”, said Hans-Otto Pörtner.

“科学证据毋庸置疑:气候变化是对人类福祉和地球健康的威胁。进一步拖延全球协同行动将错失稍纵即逝的机会,无法保障宜居未来的实现”,Hans-Otto Pörtner表示。

unequivocal / ˌʌnɪˈkwɪvəkl / adj. 明确的,不含糊的

concerted / kənˈsɜːtɪd / adj. 共同筹划的,协商一致的

来源:世界气象组织 日期:2022年7月1日

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