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习近平在中央人大工作会议上的讲话

发布日期:2022-06-01      阅读数:44 次

在中央人大工作会议上的讲话

Speech at the Central People’s Congress Work Conference

习近平

Xi Jinping

2021年10月13日

October 13, 2021

今年是我们党成立一百周年。100年前,中国共产党一经诞生,就把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴确立为自己的初心和使命,为实现人民当家作主进行了不懈探索和奋斗。在新民主主义革命时期,我们党在根据地创建人民政权,为建立新型政治制度积累了实践经验。经过实践探索和理论思考,以毛泽东同志为主要代表的中国共产党人,创造性地提出实行人民代表大会制度的构想。1945年4月,毛泽东同志就说:“新民主主义的政权组织,应该采取民主集中制,由各级人民代表大会决定大政方针,选举政府。它是民主的,又是集中的,就是说,在民主基础上的集中,在集中指导下的民主。只有这个制度,才既能表现广泛的民主,使各级人民代表大会有高度的权力;又能集中处理国事,使各级政府能集中地处理被各级人民代表大会所委托的一切事务,并保障人民的一切必要的民主活动。”

This year marks the centenary of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Upon its founding a hundred years ago, our Party made the pursuit of happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation its founding aspiration and mission, and it has since explored every means to ensure that it is the people who run the country. During the New Democratic Revolution, our Party established people’s governments in base areas and provided practical experience for building a new political system. 

Through practice and theoretical reflection, Chinese Communists, with Mao Zedong as their chief representative, put forward the original idea to implement a system of people’s congresses. As early as April 1945, Mao Zedong said, “The organizational principle of the new democratic state should be democratic centralism, with the people’s congresses at all levels determining the major policies and electing the governments. It is both democratic and centralized, that is, centralized on the basis of democracy and democratic under centralized guidance. This is the only system that can give full expression to democracy with full powers vested in the people’s congresses at various levels and, at the same time, ensure centralized administration with the governments at each level exercising centralized management of all the affairs entrusted to them by the people’s congresses at the corresponding level and safeguarding whatever is essential to the democratic activities of the people.” 

经过长期浴血奋战和艰苦斗争,我们党领导人民建立了中华人民共和国,完成了民族独立、人民解放的历史任务,亿万人民翻身作主,成为国家和社会的主人。1954年9月,一届全国人大一次会议召开,通过了《中华人民共和国宪法》,标志着人民代表大会制度这一国家根本政治制度正式建立。

Through years of fierce battles and arduous struggles, our Party led the people in founding the People’s Republic of China and accomplishing the historic mission of national independence and liberation, thus enabling hundreds of millions of people to become the masters of their country and society. The First Session of the First National People’s Congress (NPC) was convened in September 1954, and adopted the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, marking the official establishment of China’s foundational political system – the system of people’s congresses.

改革开放以来,我们党坚定不移推进社会主义民主法治建设,坚持中国特色社会主义政治发展道路,不断健全我国选举制度、国家机构制度体系、基层民主制度、人大组织制度和议事规则,人民代表大会制度焕发出新的生机活力。

Since the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, our Party has remained committed to advancing socialist democracy and rule of law, kept to the path of socialist political development with Chinese characteristics, and constantly improved China’s electoral systems, systems of state institutions, systems for community-level democracy, and organizational systems and rules of procedure for the people’s congresses. These efforts have infused the people’s congress system with fresh vitality. 

党的十八大以来,我们党立足新的历史方位,深刻把握我国社会主要矛盾发生的新变化,积极回应人民群众对民主法治的新要求新期盼,着力推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,健全人民当家作主制度体系,加强基层政权建设,改进人大代表工作,人大工作取得历史性成就,人民代表大会制度更加成熟、更加定型。

Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, our Party has stood at a new historic juncture, gained a deep understanding of the new changes to the principal challenge in Chinese society, and actively responded to the people’s new demands and aspirations for democracy and rule of law. It has worked hard to modernize China’s system and capacity for governance, improved the system of institutions through which the people run the country, strengthened governments at the primary level, and improved work related to people’s congress deputies. As a result, historic achievements have been made in people’s congress work, and the people’s congress system has become more mature and well-defined. 

60多年来特别是改革开放40多年来,人民代表大会制度为党领导人民创造经济快速发展奇迹和社会长期稳定奇迹提供了重要制度保障。

Over the 60-plus years since its inception, and particularly over the 40-plus years of reform and opening up, the people’s congress system has provided an important institutional guarantee that has allowed our Party to lead the people in creating miracles of rapid economic development and long-term social stability. 

实践证明,人民代表大会制度是符合我国国情和实际、体现社会主义国家性质、保证人民当家作主、保障实现中华民族伟大复兴的好制度,是我们党领导人民在人类政治制度史上的伟大创造,是在我国政治发展史乃至世界政治发展史上具有重大意义的全新政治制度。

Practice has shown that the people’s congress system is a sound system that accords with China’s national conditions and realities, embodies our country’s nature as a socialist nation, ensures that the people run the country, and provides safeguards for national rejuvenation. Created by the people under the Party’s leadership, it is a great invention in the history of political institutions, and it is an entirely new political system of major importance in the history of China’s political development and even in that of the world. 

人民代表大会制度,坚持中国共产党领导,坚持马克思主义国家学说的基本原则,适应人民民主专政的国体,有效保证国家沿着社会主义道路前进。人民代表大会制度,坚持国家一切权力属于人民,最大限度保障人民当家作主,把党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一起来,有效保证国家治理跳出治乱兴衰的历史周期率。人民代表大会制度,正确处理事关国家前途命运的一系列重大政治关系,实现国家统一高效组织各项事业,维护国家统一和民族团结,有效保证国家政治生活既充满活力又安定有序。

Under the Party’s leadership, the people’s congress system adheres to the basic tenets of Marxist theory of the state, adapts to the state system of a people’s democratic dictatorship, and effectively ensures that China advances along the path of socialism. Under this system, all power of the state belongs to the people, the people’s position as masters of the country is protected to the greatest extent, and the unity between leadership by the Party, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance is upheld, thus ensuring that China escapes the historical cycle of rise and fall of political orders. Under this system, major political relationships that influence the nation’s future are properly managed, social programs operate under the effective unified organization of the state, national unity and ethnic solidarity are maintained, and vigor, stability, and order prevail in the country’s political life. 

党的十八大以来,党中央统筹中华民族伟大复兴战略全局和世界百年未有之大变局,从坚持和完善党的领导、巩固中国特色社会主义制度的战略高度出发,继续推进人民代表大会制度理论和实践创新,提出一系列新理念新思想新要求,主要有以下几个方面。

Since our Party’s 18th National Congress, the Central Committee has implemented a national rejuvenation strategy against a backdrop of global change the likes of which has not been seen in a century. Taking into account the strategic requisites of upholding and improving the Party’s leadership and consolidating the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, it has continued to advance theoretical and practical innovations in the people’s congress system and put forward new concepts, ideas, and requirements, which are focused on the following aspects. 

一是必须坚持中国共产党领导。坚持党总揽全局、协调各方的领导核心作用,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,保证党的理论、路线、方针政策和决策部署在国家工作中得到全面贯彻和有效执行,支持和保证国家政权机关依照宪法法律积极主动、独立负责、协调一致开展工作。要加强和改善党的领导,善于使党的主张通过法定程序成为国家意志,善于使党组织推荐的人选通过法定程序成为国家政权机关的领导人员,善于通过国家政权机关实施党对国家和社会的领导,维护党和国家权威、维护全党全国团结统一。

First, we must uphold the CPC’s leadership. 

We must uphold the core role of the Party in exercising overall leadership and coordinating the efforts of all sides, uphold the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership, and ensure that the Party’s theories, guidelines, principles, policies, decisions, and plans are fully and effectively implemented in the work of the state. We should provide the support and safeguards that bodies of state power need to carry out their work in accordance with the Constitution and the law and in an active, independent, and coordinated manner. We must strengthen and improve the leadership of our Party so that we become better at using statutory procedures to turn the Party’s propositions into the will of the state and to ensure that candidates recommended by Party organizations assume leadership positions in bodies of state power, and so that we become better at using bodies of state power to exercise the Party’s leadership over the country and society. This will allow us to safeguard the authority of the Party and country and uphold the unity of the entire Party and country. 

二是必须坚持用制度体系保障人民当家作主。坚持以人民为中心,坚持国家一切权力属于人民,支持和保证人民通过人民代表大会行使国家权力,健全民主制度,丰富民主形式,拓宽民主渠道,保证人民平等参与、平等发展权利,发展更加广泛、更加充分、更加健全的全过程人民民主。

Second, we must use a system of institutions to ensure the people run the country. 

We must remain committed to a people-centered approach, uphold the principle that all power of the state belongs to the people, and support and ensure the people’s exercise of state power through people’s congresses. We should improve democratic institutions, create more forms of democracy, and expand channels for democracy, and we should protect the people’s rights to equal participation and development, so as to promote a whole-process people’s democracy that is broader, fuller, and more robust. 

三是必须坚持全面依法治国。坚持走中国特色社会主义法治道路,建设中国特色社会主义法治体系,建设社会主义法治国家,弘扬社会主义法治精神,依照宪法法律推进国家各项事业和各项工作,维护社会公平正义,尊重和保障人权,实现国家各项工作法治化。

Third, we must advance law-based governance on all fronts. 

We must follow a path and develop a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a socialist nation under the rule of law. We should carry forward the spirit of socialist rule of law, advance all undertakings and initiatives of the country in accordance with the Constitution and the law, safeguard social fairness and justice, respect and protect human rights, and make sure that all of the country’s initiatives are on a legal footing. 

四是必须坚持民主集中制。坚持人民通过人民代表大会统一行使国家权力,各级人民代表大会由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督;各级国家行政机关、监察机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对人大负责,受人大监督;实行决策权、执行权、监督权既合理分工又相互协调,保证国家机关依照法定权限和程序行使职权、履行职责;坚持在党中央统一领导下,充分发挥地方主动性和积极性,保证国家统一高效组织推进各项事业。

Fourth, we must uphold democratic centralism. 

We must ensure that the people exercise state power in a unified manner through people’s congresses and that people’s congresses at all levels are formed through democratic elections, are responsible to the people, and are subject to their oversight; that administrative, supervisory, adjudicatory, and procuratorial bodies at all levels are created by people’s congresses, are responsible to them, and are subject to their oversight; that there is an appropriate division of work and mutual coordination between decision making, executive, and oversight powers and that state bodies exercise their powers and perform their duties in accordance with their statutory scope of authority and procedures; and that local governments fully exert their initiative and enthusiasm under the unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, so as to ensure that all undertakings are advanced under the unified and effective organization of the state. 

五是必须坚持中国特色社会主义政治发展道路。坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,核心是坚持党的领导。人民代表大会制度是坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一的根本政治制度安排,保证党领导人民依法有效治理国家。可以借鉴人类政治文明的有益成果,但绝不照搬西方政治制度模式。

Fifth, we must keep to the path of socialist political development with Chinese characteristics. 

The core of maintaining the unity between leadership by the Party, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance is upholding leadership by the Party. The people’s congress system is a foundational political system for upholding this unity; it ensures that the Party leads the people in effectively governing the country in accordance with the law. We can learn from other countries’ political achievements, but we will never blindly copy Western political systems and models. 

六是必须坚持推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。人民代表大会制度是中国特色社会主义制度的重要组成部分,也是国家治理体系的重要组成部分。要坚持和完善人民当家作主制度体系,不断推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,更好把制度优势转化为治理效能。

Sixth, we must continue to modernize China’s system and capacity for governance. 

The people’s congress system is an important component of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and of China’s system of governance. We must uphold and improve the system of institutions through which the people run the country, continue to improve the institutions, standards, and procedures of socialist democracy, and do better at translating our institutional strengths into effective governance. 

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,制度竞争是综合国力竞争的重要方面,制度优势是一个国家赢得战略主动的重要优势。历史和现实都表明,制度稳则国家稳,制度强则国家强。党的十八大和十九大都对加强人民代表大会制度、做好人大工作作出重要部署。在全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程上,我们要毫不动摇坚持、与时俱进完善人民代表大会制度,加强和改进新时代人大工作。

With the world undergoing changes of a magnitude not seen in a century, institutional competition has become an important part of competition in composite national strength, and institutional advantages are essential for winning the strategic initiative. Both the facts of history and the realities of today tell us that strong and stable institutions make a strong and stable nation. At our Party’s 18th and 19th national congresses, important plans were made to strengthen the people’s congress system and improve people’s congress work. On our new journey to build China into a modern socialist country, we must firmly uphold the people’s congress system while improving it in pace with the times, so as to strengthen and enhance people’s congress work in the new era. To this end, we should do the following. 

第一,全面贯彻实施宪法,维护宪法权威和尊严。古人说:“法者,国之权衡也,时之准绳也。”宪法是国家的根本法,是党和人民意志的集中体现,具有最高的法律地位、法律权威、法律效力。我多次强调,维护宪法权威,就是维护党和人民共同意志的权威;捍卫宪法尊严,就是捍卫党和人民共同意志的尊严;保证宪法实施,就是保证人民根本利益的实现。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。任何组织和个人都不得有超越宪法法律的特权,一切违反宪法法律的行为都必须予以追究和纠正。

First, we should ensure the full implementation of the Constitution and safeguard its authority and sanctity. 

Ancient Chinese believed that “law is the state’s scale and society’s yardstick.” As China’s fundamental law, the Constitution is the concentrated embodiment of the will of the Party and the people, and it enjoys supreme legal status, authority, and force. I have emphasized on several occasions that to uphold the authority of the Constitution is to uphold the authority of the common will of the Party and the people; to safeguard the inviolability of the Constitution is to safeguard the inviolability of the common will of the Party and the people; and to guarantee the implementation of the Constitution is to guarantee the realization of the fundamental interests of the people. All people of China and all state bodies, armed forces, political parties, social organizations, enterprises, and public institutions must treat the Constitution as their fundamental code of conduct and assume the duty of upholding the sanctity of the Constitution and ensuring its implementation. No organization or individual is above the Constitution or the law, and all constitutional and legal violations must be investigated and dealt with. 

坚持依法治国首先要坚持依宪治国,坚持依法执政首先要坚持依宪执政。坚持依宪治国、依宪执政,就必须坚持宪法确定的中国共产党领导地位不动摇,坚持宪法确定的人民民主专政的国体和人民代表大会制度的政体不动摇。全面贯彻实施宪法是建设社会主义法治国家的首要任务和基础性工作,也是坚持和完善人民代表大会制度的必然要求。要以宪法为根本活动准则,用科学有效、系统完备的制度体系保证宪法实施,加强宪法监督,弘扬宪法精神,切实维护宪法的权威和尊严。党领导人民制定和实施宪法法律,党自身必须在宪法法律范围内活动。各级人大、政府、监委、法院、检察院都要严格依照宪法法律积极主动、独立负责、协调一致开展工作。

To ensure law-based governance of the country, we must first ensure governance based on the Constitution; to ensure law-based exercise of state power, we must first ensure exercise of state power based on the Constitution. To ensure Constitution-based national governance and exercise of state power, we must remain committed to upholding the leadership position of the Communist Party of China, upholding the people’s democratic dictatorship as our state system, and upholding the people’s congress system as our system of state power, all of which are enshrined in China’s Constitution. 

Full implementation of the Constitution is the primary task and groundwork for building a socialist nation under the rule of law, and it is also a natural requirement for upholding and improving the system of people’s congresses. We must take the Constitution as our fundamental code of conduct and use a well-designed, effective, and complete system of institutions to ensure the implementation of the Constitution. We must enhance constitutional oversight, promote and enrich the spirit of the Constitution, and safeguard the authority and sanctity of the Constitution. 

To lead the people in formulating and implementing the Constitution and the law, our Party itself must act within the scope of the Constitution and the law. People’s congresses, governments, supervision commissions, courts, and procuratorates at all levels need to work in accordance with the Constitution and the law and in an active, independent, and coordinated manner.

全国人大及其常委会要完善宪法相关法律制度,保证宪法确立的制度、原则、规则得到全面实施;加强对宪法法律实施情况的监督检查,提高合宪性审查、备案审查工作质量,坚决纠正违宪违法行为;落实宪法解释程序机制,积极回应涉及宪法有关问题的关切。要健全中央依照宪法和特别行政区基本法对特别行政区行使全面管治权的法律制度,完善特别行政区同宪法和基本法实施相关的制度和机制,维护宪法和基本法确定的特别行政区宪制秩序和法治秩序。地方各级人大及其常委会要依法行使职权,保证宪法法律在本行政区域内得到遵守和执行,自觉维护国家法治统一。

The NPC and its Standing Committee should improve the legal system pertaining to the Constitution and ensure that the systems, principles, and rules established by the Constitution are fully implemented. They should strengthen oversight and inspection of the implementation of the Constitution and the law, improve constitutionality reviews and recording and review of normative documents, and resolutely correct constitutional and legal violations. They should implement procedures and mechanisms for constitutional interpretation and actively attend to concerns about constitutional issues. 

The NPC and its Standing Committee should improve the legal system under which the central government exercises overall jurisdiction over the special administrative regions in accordance with the Constitution and the regions’ basic laws, refine the regions’ systems and mechanisms related to the implementation of the Constitution and their basic laws, and maintain constitutional order and the rule of law in the regions as established in the Constitution and their basic laws. 

Local people’s congresses at all levels and their standing committees must exercise their functions and powers in accordance with the law, ensure that the Constitution and the law are observed and implemented within their respective administrative regions, and consciously preserve the unity of law in China. 

第二,加快完善中国特色社会主义法律体系,以良法促进发展、保障善治。“立善法于天下,则天下治;立善法于一国,则一国治。”改革开放以来,在党的领导下,经过各方面努力,我国用30多年时间形成了中国特色社会主义法律体系,这是人类法治史上一项了不起的成就。同时,也要看到,时代在进步,实践在发展,不断对法律体系建设提出新需求,法律体系必须与时俱进加以完善。

Second, we should move faster to improve the socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics, using sound laws to develop and ensure good governance. 

“If good laws are established under heaven, then peace will prevail in the world; if good laws are established in a state, then peace will prevail in that state.” Since the launch of reform and opening up, under the leadership of our Party and through the hard work of all parties, our country has spent more than 30 years developing a socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics. This is a remarkable achievement in the history of the rule of law. At the same time, we must also see that the times are changing and practice has evolved, which raises new demands for the development of the legal system. The legal system must be improved in step with the times. 

要加强党对立法工作的集中统一领导,完善党委领导、人大主导、政府依托、各方参与的立法工作格局。要把改革发展决策同立法决策更好结合起来,既通过深化改革完善法治,又通过更完善的法治保障各领域改革创新,确保国家发展、重大改革于法有据。要统筹推进国内法治和涉外法治,统筹发展和安全,推动我国法域外适用的法律体系建设,用法治方式有效应对挑战、防范风险,维护国家主权、安全、发展利益。要坚持系统观念,统筹立改废释纂,全面完善法律、行政法规、监察法规、地方性法规体系。

We must strengthen the Party’s centralized leadership over legislative work and improve the legislative framework featuring guidance from Party committees, the leading role played by people’s congresses, support from the government, and participation by all parties. We should better align decision making for reform and development with legislative decision making, both improving the rule of law through further reform and ensuring reform and innovation in all fields through better rule of law, so as to provide a legal basis for national development and major reforms. We need to advance the rule of law in domestic and foreign affairs in a coordinated manner, balance development and security imperatives, and develop a system of laws for extraterritorial application. We need to use legal means to meet challenges, forestall risks, and safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests. Applying systems thinking, we should enact, revise, repeal, interpret, and codify laws in a coordinated way and take comprehensive steps to improve the system of laws, administrative regulations, supervisory regulations, and local regulations. 

全国人大及其常委会是国家立法机关,要在确保质量的前提下加快立法工作步伐,增强立法的系统性、整体性、协同性,使法律体系更加科学完备、统一权威。要加强重点领域、新兴领域、涉外领域立法,注重将社会主义核心价值观融入立法,健全国家治理急需、满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要必备的法律制度。要在条件成熟的立法领域继续开展法典编纂工作。

As the national legislature, the NPC and its Standing Committee should speed up the pace of legislative work while ensuring quality, and they should make legislation more systematic, integrated, and coordinated and the legal system better-designed and more complete, unified, and authoritative. They should step up legislation in key and emerging sectors and concerning China’s international related activities. With a focus on imbuing legislation with core socialist values, they should work to perfect the legal systems that are urgently needed for national governance and are necessary for meeting the people’s growing needs for a better life. Codification work should be continued in mature areas of legislation. 

良法是善治的前提。“法非从天下,非从地出,发于人间,合乎人心而已。”要抓住提高立法质量这个关键,发挥好人大及其常委会在立法工作中的主导作用,坚持尊重和体现客观规律,坚持为了人民、依靠人民,坚持严格依照法定权限和法定程序,深入推进科学立法、民主立法、依法立法。要丰富立法形式,增强立法的针对性、适用性、可操作性。要严格按照法定权限和程序制定行政法规、监察法规、部门规章,保证法规、规章的质量。有立法权的地方人大要严格遵循立法权限,围绕贯彻落实党中央大政方针和决策部署,做好地方立法工作,着力解决实际问题。

Good laws are a prerequisite for good governance. “The law does not fall from the sky or grow from the earth; it manifests from among the people in line with their will.” Focusing on improving the quality of legislation, people’s congresses and their standing committees should fully play their leading role in legislative work and stay committed to respecting and reflecting the objective rules that govern reality, serving and relying on the people, and remaining strictly in line with their statutory scope of authority and statutory procedures as they work hard to advance more effective, democratic, and law-based legislation. They should enrich their approach to legislative work and ensure legislation becomes more targeted, applicable, and practicable. In order to guarantee the quality of regulations and rules, they must make sure that administrative regulations, supervisory regulations, and departmental rules are formulated in strict accordance with their statutory scope of authority and statutory procedures. Local people’s congresses with legislative powers must strictly remain within their scope of legislative power and do a good job in local legislation by prioritizing the implementation of the Party Central Committee’s major policies, decisions, and plans and focusing on solving practical problems. 

第三,用好宪法赋予人大的监督权,实行正确监督、有效监督、依法监督。人民代表大会制度的重要原则和制度设计的基本要求,就是任何国家机关及其工作人员的权力都要受到监督和制约。要更好发挥人大监督在党和国家监督体系中的重要作用,让人民监督权力,让权力在阳光下运行,用制度的笼子管住权力,用法治的缰绳驾驭权力。

Third, people’s congresses should make good use of the oversight powers conferred upon them by the Constitution and exercise appropriate, effective, and lawful oversight. 

An important principle of the people’s congress system and a basic requirement of its institutional design is that the power of all state organs and their staff are subject to oversight and checks. We should give better play to the important role of the people’s congresses in the oversight system of the Party and the country to ensure that power is exercised under public oversight, in broad daylight, within an institutional cage, and under the reins of the rule of law. 

各级人大及其常委会要把宪法法律赋予的监督权用起来,实行正确监督、有效监督、依法监督,维护国家法治统一、尊严、权威,确保法律法规得到有效实施,确保行政权、监察权、审判权、检察权依法正确行使。

People’s congresses at all levels and their standing committees should make use of the oversight powers conferred on them by the Constitution and the law and exercise appropriate, effective, and lawful oversight. They should maintain the unity, sanctity, and authority of law and make sure that laws and regulations are effectively implemented and that administrative, supervisory, adjudicatory, and procuratorial powers are properly exercised in accordance with the law. 

在我国政治体制中,人大对于“一府一委两院”具有监督作用,推动各国家机关形成工作合力。要坚持围绕中心、服务大局、突出重点,聚焦党中央重大决策部署,聚焦人民群众所思所盼所愿,推动解决制约经济社会发展的突出矛盾和问题。人大要统筹运用法定监督方式,加强对法律法规实施情况的监督,确保各国家机关都在宪法法律范围内履行职责、开展工作。要完善人大监督制度,健全人大对执法司法工作监督的机制和方式。各级“一府一委两院”要严格执行人大及其常委会制定的法律法规和作出的决议决定,依法报告工作,自觉接受人大监督。

In our country’s political system, people’s congresses play the role of overseeing governments, supervision commissions, courts, and procuratorates at the same level, and they coordinate the work of all state bodies to create synergies. People’s congresses should stay focused on pursuing the central task of economic development, serving the overall national interest, giving priority to key areas, following the decisions and plans of the Party Central Committee, and delivering on the people’s aspirations and expectations, and they should work hard to facilitate the resolution of prominent issues and problems that hinder economic and social development. They should make full use of multiple statutory oversight arrangements, strengthen oversight of the implementation of laws and regulations, and ensure that all state bodies perform their duties and carry out their work within the scope stipulated by the Constitution and the law. We should improve the system of oversight by people’s congresses and develop sound mechanisms and methods for their oversight of law enforcement and judicial work. Governments, supervision commissions, courts, and procuratorates at all levels must strictly implement the laws, regulations, and resolutions made by people’s congresses and their standing committees, report on their work in accordance with the law, and readily accept oversight from people’s congresses. 

第四,充分发挥人大代表作用,做到民有所呼、我有所应。“为政之要,以顺民心为本。”人民代表大会制度之所以具有强大生命力和显著优越性,关键在于深深植根于人民之中。一切国家机关和国家工作人员必须牢固树立人民公仆意识,把人民放在心中最高位置,保持同人民的密切联系,倾听人民意见和建议,接受人民监督,努力为人民服务。要丰富人大代表联系人民群众的内容和形式,拓宽联系渠道,积极回应社会关切,更好接地气、察民情、聚民智、惠民生。各级人大常委会要加强代表工作能力建设,支持和保障代表更好依法履职,使发挥各级人大代表作用成为人民当家作主的重要体现。

Fourth, people’s congresses should give full play to the role of their deputies, and see to it that they respond to the calls of the people. 

“Serving the will of the people is the key to governance.” The key to the great vitality and strengths of the people’s congress system is that it is deeply rooted in the people. All state organs and their employees must foster a strong sense of service to the people, put the people above all else, maintain close ties with them, listen to their opinions and suggestions, accept their oversight, and work hard to serve them. People’s congresses should ensure that their deputies reach out to the public on a greater variety of issues and in more diversified ways, broaden their channels of contact, actively respond to public concerns, better engage with the people, observe public sentiment, gather the people’s ideas, and work to benefit their lives. Standing committees of people’s congresses at all levels should enhance their ability to carry out deputy-related work and provide support and safeguards for deputies to better perform their duties in accordance with the law, so as to make sure that the idea of the people as masters of the country is reflected in how deputies play their roles. 

人大代表肩负人民赋予的光荣职责,要忠实代表人民利益和意志,依法参加行使国家权力。要站稳政治立场,履行政治责任,加强思想、作风建设,模范遵守宪法法律,做政治上的明白人。要充分发挥来自人民、扎根人民的特点优势,密切同人民群众的联系,当好党和国家联系人民群众的桥梁,最大限度调动积极因素、化解消极因素,展现新时代人大代表的风采。

Deputies to people’s congresses shoulder the honorable duties entrusted to them by the people so that they faithfully represent the interests and will of the people and participate in the exercise of state power in accordance with the law. Deputies should stand firm politically, fulfill their political responsibilities, improve their thinking and conduct, set a good example by abiding by the Constitution and the law, and act with political acumen. Deputies should give full play to their characteristics and strengths of being of the people and rooted in the people, keep close ties with the people, serve as the bridge that links the Party and the country with the people, mobilize positive factors and mitigate negative ones to the greatest extent possible, and conduct themselves in ways that befit people’s congress deputies in the new era. 

第五,强化政治机关意识,加强人大自身建设。各级人大及其常委会要增强“四个意识”、坚定“四个自信”、做到“两个维护”,不断提高政治判断力、政治领悟力、政治执行力,全面加强自身建设,成为自觉坚持中国共产党领导的政治机关、保证人民当家作主的国家权力机关、全面担负宪法法律赋予的各项职责的工作机关、始终同人民群众保持密切联系的代表机关。要优化人大常委会、专门委员会组成人员结构,打造政治坚定、服务人民、尊崇法治、发扬民主、勤勉尽责的人大工作队伍。要加强纪律作风建设,既严格履行法定职责,遵守法定程序,又坚决防止形式主义、官僚主义,提高人大工作实效。

Fifth, people’s congresses should be more aware of their identity as political institutions and intensify self-improvement efforts. 

People’s congresses at all levels and their standing committees must be deeply conscious of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership. They must stay confident in the path, the theory, the system, and the culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. They must uphold the core position of the General Secretary on the CPC Central Committee and in the Party as a whole and uphold the Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. They must continuously improve their political judgment, understanding, and execution, improve themselves in all respects, and build themselves into political institutions that consciously uphold the Party’s leadership, institutions of state power that ensure the running of the country by the people, working institutions that fully assume functions conferred by the Constitution and the law, and representative institutions that always maintain close ties with the people.

People’s congresses should optimize the composition of their standing committees and special committees and train personnel that maintain political resolve, serve the people, respect the rule of law, promote democracy, and are diligent and responsible. In order to improve the effectiveness of their work, they should improve conduct and strengthen discipline, not only strictly performing statutory duties and abiding by statutory procedures, but also resolutely guarding against favoring form over substance and excessive bureaucracy. 

第六,加强党对人大工作的全面领导。人民代表大会制度是党领导国家政权机关的重要制度载体,也是党在国家政权中充分发扬民主、贯彻群众路线的重要实现形式。各级党委要把人大工作摆在重要位置,完善党领导人大工作的制度,定期听取人大常委会党组工作汇报,研究解决人大工作中的重大问题。要支持人大及其常委会依法行使职权、开展工作,指导和督促“一府一委两院”自觉接受人大监督。要加强人大常委会领导班子和人大工作队伍建设,推动人大干部同党政部门、司法部门干部之间的合理交流。党的各级组织、宣传等部门要加强同人大有关方面的协调配合,形成做好新时代人大工作的强大合力。各级人大常委会党组要认真执行党的领导各项制度,落实好全面从严治党主体责任。

Sixth, we should strengthen our Party’s overall leadership over the work of people’s congresses. 

The people’s congress system is an important institutional vehicle for the Party to exercise leadership over bodies of state power, and it is also an important form through which the Party fully promotes democracy and implements its mass line in the exercise of state power. Party committees at all levels should give priority to people’s congress work, improve the systems of Party leadership over the work of people’s congresses, hear work reports from Party leadership groups of people’s congress standing committees on a regular basis, and resolve major issues in people’s congress work. 

We should support people’s congresses and their standing committees in performing their duties and carrying out their work in accordance with the law and guide and urge governments, supervision commissions, courts, and procuratorates to readily accept the oversight of people’s congresses. We should strengthen the leadership teams of people’s congress standing committees and the personnel of people’s congresses and promote job rotation between people’s congresses, Party and government institutions, and judicial bodies. The Party’s organization, communication, and other departments at all levels should enhance their coordination and cooperation with relevant departments of people’s congresses to create powerful synergies for carrying out people’s congress work in the new era. Party leadership groups of people’s congress standing committees at all levels should earnestly implement the systems of Party leadership and ensure that they fulfill their principal responsibilities for full and strict Party self-governance. 

民主是全人类的共同价值,是中国共产党和中国人民始终不渝坚持的重要理念。如何把民主价值和理念转化为科学有效的制度安排,转化为具体现实的民主实践,需要注重历史和现实、理论和实践、形式和内容有机统一,找到正确的体制机制和方式方法。

Democracy is a value shared by all humanity and an ideal that the Communist Party of China and the Chinese people have always upheld. As we work to translate democratic values and ideals into sound and effective institutions and concrete and real democratic practice, we need to find the right systems, mechanisms, and approaches based on the integration of history and reality, theory and practice, and form and substance. 

我说过,评价一个国家政治制度是不是民主的、有效的,主要看国家领导层能否依法有序更替,全体人民能否依法管理国家事务和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业,人民群众能否畅通表达利益要求,社会各方面能否有效参与国家政治生活,国家决策能否实现科学化、民主化,各方面人才能否通过公平竞争进入国家领导和管理体系,执政党能否依照宪法法律规定实现对国家事务的领导,权力运用能否得到有效制约和监督。

As I have said, the best way to evaluate whether a country’s political system is democratic and effective is to observe whether the succession of its leaders is orderly and law-based, whether the people can manage state and social affairs and economic and cultural undertakings in accordance with the law, whether the public can express their needs through open channels, whether all sectors of society can effectively participate in the country’s political affairs, whether the country’s decision making can be conducted in a rational and democratic manner, whether people of all fields can join the state leadership and administrative systems by way of fair competition, whether the governing party can lead state affairs in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and whether the exercise of power is subject to effective checks and oversight.

民主不是装饰品,不是用来做摆设的,而是要用来解决人民需要解决的问题的。一个国家民主不民主,关键在于是不是真正做到了人民当家作主,要看人民有没有投票权,更要看人民有没有广泛参与权;要看人民在选举过程中得到了什么口头许诺,更要看选举后这些承诺实现了多少;要看制度和法律规定了什么样的政治程序和政治规则,更要看这些制度和法律是不是真正得到了执行;要看权力运行规则和程序是否民主,更要看权力是否真正受到人民监督和制约。如果人民只有在投票时被唤醒、投票后就进入休眠期,只有竞选时聆听天花乱坠的口号、竞选后就毫无发言权,只有拉票时受宠、选举后就被冷落,这样的民主不是真正的民主。

Democracy is not an ornament to be put on display, but an instrument for addressing the issues that concern the people. Whether a country is democratic or not depends on whether its people are truly the masters of the country. It depends on whether the people have the right to vote, and more importantly, the right to participate; what promises they are given during elections, and more importantly, how many of these promises are delivered after elections; what kind of political procedures and rules are set through state systems and laws, and more importantly, whether these systems and laws are truly enforced; and whether the rules and procedures for the exercise of power are democratic, and more importantly, whether the exercise of power is genuinely subject to public oversight and checks. If the people are only engaged with to solicit votes and then are left in the dark, if they must listen to grandiose election slogans but have no voice when the elections are over, or if they are only treated well by candidates during elections and are ignored after, this is not true democracy. 

总之,民主是各国人民的权利,而不是少数国家的专利。一个国家是不是民主,应该由这个国家的人民来评判,而不应该由外部少数人指手画脚来评判。国际社会哪个国家是不是民主的,应该由国际社会共同来评判,而不应该由自以为是的少数国家来评判。实现民主有多种方式,不可能千篇一律。用单一的标尺衡量世界丰富多彩的政治制度,用单调的眼光审视人类五彩缤纷的政治文明,本身就是不民主的。

In a word, democracy is the right of the people of all countries, not the prerogative of a few nations. Whether a country is democratic should be judged by its people, not by a handful of nosy outsiders. In the international community, whether a country is democratic should be judged by community consensus, not by a few self-appointed judges. There is no uniform or single model of democracy; it comes in many forms. Assessing the world’s myriad political systems against a single yardstick and examining diverse political advancement in monochrome is, itself, inherently undemocratic. 

中国共产党始终高举人民民主的旗帜,始终坚持以下基本观点:一是人民民主是社会主义的生命,没有民主就没有社会主义,就没有社会主义的现代化,就没有中华民族伟大复兴。二是人民当家作主是社会主义民主政治的本质和核心,发展社会主义民主政治就是要体现人民意志、保障人民权益、激发人民创造活力,用制度体系保证人民当家作主。三是中国特色社会主义政治发展道路是符合中国国情、保证人民当家作主的正确道路,是近代以来中国人民长期奋斗历史逻辑、理论逻辑、实践逻辑的必然结果,是坚持党的本质属性、践行党的根本宗旨的必然要求。四是人民通过选举、投票行使权利和人民内部各方面在重大决策之前进行充分协商,尽可能就共同性问题取得一致意见,是中国社会主义民主的两种重要形式,共同构成了中国社会主义民主政治的制度特点和优势。五是发展社会主义民主政治关键是要把我国社会主义民主政治的特点和优势充分发挥出来,不断推进社会主义民主政治制度化、规范化、程序化,为党和国家兴旺发达、长治久安提供更加完善的制度保障。邓小平同志说:“资本主义社会讲的民主是资产阶级的民主,实际上是垄断资本的民主,无非是多党竞选、三权鼎立、两院制。我们的制度是人民代表大会制度,共产党领导下的人民民主制度,不能搞西方那一套。社会主义国家有个最大的优越性,就是干一件事情,一下决心,一做出决议,就立即执行,不受牵扯。”

The Communist Party of China has always upheld people’s democracy and has always adhered to the following basic ideas. First, people’s democracy is the life of socialism; without democracy, there would be no socialism, socialist modernization, or national rejuvenation. Second, the running of the country by the people is the essence and heart of socialist democracy. The very purpose of developing socialist democracy is to give full expression to the will of the people, protect their rights and interests, spark their creativity, and provide a system of institutions to ensure that it is they who are running the country. Third, the Chinese socialist path of political development is the right path, as it conforms to China’s national conditions and guarantees the position of the people as the masters of the country. It is the logical outcome of history, theory, and practice based on the strenuous efforts of the Chinese people in modern times. It is a requisite for maintaining the very nature of our Party and fulfilling its fundamental purpose. Fourth, China’s socialist democracy takes two important forms: one in which the people exercise rights by means of elections and voting, and another in which people from all walks of life are consulted extensively in order to reach the widest possible consensus on matters of common concern before major decisions are made. Together these make up the institutional features and strengths of China’s socialist democracy. Fifth, the key to developing China’s socialist democracy is to fully leverage its features and strengths. As we continue to advance socialist democracy with well-defined institutions, standards, and procedures, we can provide better institutional safeguards for our Party and country’s prosperity and long-term stability. 

Deng Xiaoping once said, “The democracy in capitalist societies is bourgeois democracy – in fact, it is the democracy of monopoly capitalists. It is no more than a system of multi-party elections, separation of judicial, executive, and legislative powers, and a bicameral legislature. Ours is the system of people’s congresses and people’s democracy under the leadership of the Communist Party; we cannot adopt the practice of the West. The greatest advantage of the socialist system is that when the central leadership makes a decision, it is promptly implemented without interference from any other quarters.” 

党的十八大以来,我们深化对民主政治发展规律的认识,提出全过程人民民主的重大理念。我国全过程人民民主不仅有完整的制度程序,而且有完整的参与实践。我国实行工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的国体,实行人民代表大会制度的政体,实行中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自治制度、基层群众自治制度等基本政治制度,巩固和发展最广泛的爱国统一战线,形成了全面、广泛、有机衔接的人民当家作主制度体系,构建了多样、畅通、有序的民主渠道。全体人民依法实行民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,依法通过各种途径和形式管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。我国全过程人民民主实现了过程民主和成果民主、程序民主和实质民主、直接民主和间接民主、人民民主和国家意志相统一,是全链条、全方位、全覆盖的民主,是最广泛、最真实、最管用的社会主义民主。我们要继续推进全过程人民民主建设,把人民当家作主具体地、现实地体现到党治国理政的政策措施上来,具体地、现实地体现到党和国家机关各个方面各个层级工作上来,具体地、现实地体现到实现人民对美好生活向往的工作上来。

Since its 18th CPC National Congress, our Party has advanced whole-process people’s democracy as a key concept on the basis of a deeper understanding of the rules governing the development of democracy. Whole-process people’s democracy in China not only has a complete set of institutions and procedures, but also has full-fledged civil participation. China’s state system is a people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and farmers; its system of state power is the system of people’s congresses; and its basic political systems are the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, the system of regional ethnic autonomy, and the system of primary-level self-governance. Through these, China has consolidated and developed the broadest possible patriotic united front, it has formed a comprehensive, extensive, and well-coordinated system of institutions that guarantee the people run the country, and it has put into place diverse, open, and orderly channels for democracy. This allows the entire people to engage in law-based democratic elections, consultations, decision making, management, and oversight and to manage state and economic, cultural, and social affairs in various ways and forms and in accordance with the law. 

Whole-process people’s democracy in China integrates process-oriented democracy with results-oriented democracy, procedural democracy with substantive democracy, direct democracy with indirect democracy, and people’s democracy with the will of the state. It is a democracy that covers all aspects of the democratic process and all sectors of society. It is a socialist democracy to the broadest extent, of the truest nature, and to the greatest effect possible. We should continue to advance whole-process people’s democracy to see that, in concrete and tangible ways, the idea of the people as masters of the country is reflected in our Party’s governance policies and measures, in all aspects and levels of the work of Party and state institutions, and in our efforts to realize the people’s aspirations for a better life. 

人民代表大会制度是实现我国全过程人民民主的重要制度载体。要在党的领导下,不断扩大人民有序政治参与,加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由。要保证人民依法行使选举权利,民主选举产生人大代表,保证人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权落实到人大工作各方面各环节全过程,确保党和国家在决策、执行、监督落实各个环节都能听到来自人民的声音。要完善人大的民主民意表达平台和载体,健全吸纳民意、汇集民智的工作机制,推进人大协商、立法协商,把各方面社情民意统一于最广大人民根本利益之中。要加强对中国特色社会主义民主、对人民代表大会制度的研究宣传工作,讲清楚我国政治制度的特点和优势,讲好中国民主故事。

The people’s congress system is an important institutional vehicle for realizing whole-process people’s democracy in China. Under CPC’s leadership, we should continue to expand orderly political participation by the people, strengthen legal protection for human rights, and ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law. We should ensure that the people can exercise their lawful right to vote for people’s congress deputies through democratic elections, that the people’s rights to information, participation, expression, and oversight are implemented in every area and at every stage of people’s congress work, and that the people’s voice can be heard in all aspects of the decision making, execution, and oversight by the Party and the country. We should improve the democratic platforms and vehicles of people’s congresses through which the general public can express opinions, we should refine working mechanisms for soliciting public comments and collecting ideas from the people, and we should advance consultation led by people’s congresses and consultation on legislative issues, in an effort to protect the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people by taking into account all aspects of social conditions and public sentiment. We should enhance our study of and public communications on Chinese socialist democracy and the people’s congress system, elucidate the features and strengths of China’s political system, and share our story of democracy. 

坚持和完善人民代表大会制度,是全党全社会的共同责任。全党全国各族人民要坚定中国特色社会主义制度自信,不断坚持和完善人民代表大会制度,不断巩固和发展生动活泼、安定团结的政治局面,为人类政治文明进步作出充满中国智慧的贡献!

Upholding and improving the people’s congress system is the common responsibility of the whole of the Party and society. The entire Party and Chinese nation should stay confident in the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, continue to uphold and improve the people’s congress system, continue to consolidate and enhance political vitality, stability, and unity, and contribute China’s wisdom to the political advancement of humankind.

来源:求是 日期:2022年5月15日

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