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战争与和平

发布日期:2020-07-28      阅读数:14 次
导语 Introduction
战争与和平是人类永恒的话题。早在金戈铁甲的古罗马时期,中国的《道德经》便给出了斩钉截铁的论述:“师之所处,荆棘生焉;大军之后,必有凶年。”老子认为:“以道佐人主者,不以兵强天下。其事好远。” 
War and peace are a never-ending topic for mankind. Back in the distant past when Rome was riddled with silver spears and armored horses, Tao Te Ching from the “Middle Kingdom” had laid down a firm statement: “Where armies are, thorns and brambles grow. The raising of a great host is followed by a year of dearth.” [1] Lao Tzu asserted that “Whoever relies on the Tao in governing men doesn’t try to force issues or defeat enemies by force of arms. For every force there is a counterforce.” [2]
 
唯有爱好和平的国家,才会缔造和平的时代。可时至今日,战争依旧是悬在人类文明之上的一把利剑。如何让和平永驻?或许到该挖掘中国智慧的时候了。
Indeed, only with peaceful nations could an era of peace dawn. However, even today, war continues to be a sharp blade loosely hanging above human civilization. What can we do to station peace for good? Maybe it is time to dig into Chinese wisdom for an answer. 
相信小伙伴们都听说了2020年美伊开年大戏。简单来说,就是老美再出狠招,动用先进的武器,在异国他乡秘密杀害了伊朗高级将领苏莱曼尼,引发一系列连锁反应,上百条无辜生命因此丧失。这让我想起了中国历史上的一件事。
Dear reader, you must have heard all about the big drama staged between Iran and the US at the start of the new decade.  Simply put, the latter once again made a strike and slew Iranian general Qasem Soleimani in Iraq using advanced weaponry. This incident has led to a series of unfortunate consequences, including the loss of hundreds of innocent lives. I was reminded of an occurrence in ancient China.  
故事里的“捣蛋鬼”是距今两千多年的西晋,而“倒霉蛋”则是一个叫东吴的政权。
In the incident that took place over two thousand years ago, the “troublemaker” was the State of Western Jin and the “victim” was a sovereignty called Eastern Wu.
吴国(公元222年—280年),三国之一,位于中国东南部,国号为“吴”,建国之人是东汉末年割据一方的军阀——孙权,故史学界称之为孙吴。由于与曹魏、蜀汉呈鼎立之势,所统治地区又居于三国之东,故亦称东吴 。
The Kingdom of Wu (222-280 AD) was established in what is known today as southeast China by none other than Sun Zhongmou, a prominent warlord at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. To historians, it is hence known as Sun Wu. Eastern Wu is another name given by its geographical status as the eastern counterpart of the Three Kingdoms, the other two being the Kingdoms of Wei and Shu Han.
东吴是三国之中历时最久的国家,历四帝,自公元222年建国算起共59年。东吴后期,孙皓称帝。他生性暴虐,荒淫放荡,滥杀无辜,致使民不聊生,朝政腐败。
Eastern Wu survived the longest of the trio and, through four kings, lasted 59 years if you count the time of state establishment in 222 AD. The last king, named Sun Yuanzong, was a man of cruelty, lust, and injustice. Thereby he caused great misery among the people and corruption in the court. 
东吴名将陆逊之后陆抗,智勇双全,年纪轻轻就被任命为建武校尉。看到自己的国家日渐衰落,他感到十分痛心,多次上疏劝谏。但孙皓对此不予理会,依旧我行我素。时逢晋国虎视眈眈,欲南下一统中国。由于陆抗谋略过人,善于用兵,晋国始终无法得逞。 
Seeing such an inevitable downfall, the Minister of Defense Lu Youjie, son of leading general Lu Boyan and a young man of wisdom and bravery, felt so painfully worried that he sent up his words of advice many times to the king, who always kept a blind eye to those proposals and went about his ways as usual. It was at a time when the State of Western Jin unleashed its ambition and set out southward to unite the whole of China. Western Jin ’s covetous efforts, however, were thwarted over and over by the smart and skillful Minister of Eastern Wu.
镇守襄阳边境地区的晋车骑将军羊祜(kù) 见陆抗能攻善守,知道要立即打败东吴并不容易,便改变对东吴的策略,向其抛出了橄榄枝。陆抗明白羊祜的用意,便也以同样的态度相待。在边境,两人常派使者往来,以示友好。因此,当时吴、晋部分边境一度出现了和平局面。
In Western Jin’s army, the General of Chariots Yang Shuzi found Lu skilled in both attack and defense when he was stationed in the border area of Eastern Wu. He knew that an immediate defeat would be difficult. So he changed his strategy and extended an olive branch. Understanding what this meant, Lu reciprocated. At the border the two military leaders often sent messengers to each other showing good will. For a while peace seemed to be returning to some parts of the border between Eastern Wu and Western Jin.
吴君孙皓听说了这种情况,大感不悦,便派人责问陆抗。陆抗回答:“臣不如此,正是彰其德,于祜无伤也。” 
Upon hearing this, the King of Eastern Wu was very much displeased. He sent someone to question Lu, and the latter replied, “I would have fanned up Yang’s authority and prestige in his army had I taken an aggressive approach.”
孙皓听后,不以为然,仍想出兵攻晋,于是便频频调兵。
Still desiring to attack Western Jin, the king paid no heed to what Lu had said. He ordered frequent military deployments.
陆抗得知此事后便又向孙皓上疏说:“今不务富国强兵,力农畜谷,使文武之才效展其用,百揆之署无旷厥职。明黜陟以厉庶尹,审刑赏以示劝沮,训诸司以德。而抚百姓以仁,然后顺天乘运,席卷宇内,而听诸将徇名,穷兵黩武,动费万计,士卒雕瘁,寇不为衰,而我已大病矣!”这一番劝告也未能使孙皓醒悟。
“Now the court should get a stronger hold of agriculture, secure food reserves, and strengthen state power.” When he learned this, Lu sent his words of caution up to the king again. “Have talented individuals work to their potential and officials at all levels not neglect their duties. Punish and reward rigorously to inspire all officials. Enforce criminal penalty with prudence as a warning to the common people.  If we continue to pursue an undeserved reputation, emphasize formalism, spend state revenue by tens of thousands of taels deploying military forces everywhere, and tire out our soldiers, we will go under even without an imminent threat of the enemy.” Once again his substantial advice failed to wake the king up to reality.
如陆抗所料,东吴国力日渐衰退。他死后,晋军便挥师南下,讨伐东吴,吴国最终为晋所灭。
As Lu had predicated, the Kingdom of Eastern Wu was gradually declining. After the minister died, Western Jin charged south and conquered the kingdom.
诚然,历史不可妄加评判功过,亦不可随意与现代之事画等号。但我们可以截取一段历史,将其放大,分析其中的教训。
History is not to be subjected to simple judgment, nor can it be willfully equated to any modern event. But it may be safe for us to dissect a small part, zoom in on it, and see if there are any lessons to learn.
如今,随着科技和经济的发展,世界趋向大同,各国利益纵横交贯,牵一发而动全身。吴国的悲剧告诉我们,不愿正视自身顽疾,一味恋战,缺乏长期的战略眼光和大局意识,势必会引火上身,导致国衰民穷,彻底垮败。正如本杰明·富兰克林以经典西方视角写下的那句名言:“战争的代价不会在战时偿付;这笔账单之后才会来到。”
Nowadays, technological and economic advancements keep pushing the world toward a unity so compact that when one part gets irritated, the whole body is shaking up. The tragedy of Eastern Wu warns us that a total failure, one in which both the state and the people suffer, is bound to come when top leaders indulge in belligerence and refuse to address their own ills without a mind on long-term strategy and cooperation, as Benjamin Franklin echoed in a typically Western fashion, “Wars are not paid for in wartime; the bill comes later.”
[1] 林语堂译 / Tr. by Lin Yutang
[2] 米切尔译 / Tr. by Stephen Mitchell
(感谢清梦smile为本文提供历史素材和专业见解。)
(A million thanks to Crystal for providing historic references and professional insights as reflected herein.)
(欢迎各界朋友对本专栏提宝贵意见和建议!)
(Any comments or suggestions are welcome!)

来源:胡靖 日期:2020年1月20日

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